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Chaos Theory theoryChaos theory studies the behavior of dynamical systems that are highly sensitive to initial conditions, an effect which is popularly referred to as the butterfly effect theory Chaotic dynamicsIn common usage, "chaos" means "a state of disorder". However, in chaos theory, the term is defined more precisely. Although there is no universally accepted mathematical definition of chaos, a commonly used definition says that, for a dynamical system to be classified as chaotic, it must have the following properties: theory HistoryAn early proponent of chaos theory was Henri Poincar theory HistoryDespite initial insights in the first half of the twentieth century, chaos theory became formalized as such only after mid-century, when it first became evident for some scientists that linear theory, the prevailing system theory at that time, simply could not explain the observed behaviour of certain experiments like that of the logistic map. What had been beforehand excluded as measure imprecision and simple "noise" was considered by chaos theories as a full component of the studied systems. theory HistoryThe main catalyst for the development of chaos theory was the electronic computer. Much of the mathematics of chaos theory involves the repeated iteration of simple mathematical formulas, which would be impractical to do by hand. Electronic computers made these repeated calculations practical, while figures and images made it possible to visualize these systems. theory HistoryIn 1975 Mandelbrot published The Fractal Geometry of Nature, which became a classic of chaos theory theory HistoryThe following year, independently the French Pierre Coullet and Charles Tresser with the article "Iterations d'endomorphismes et groupe de renormalisation" and the American Mitchell Feigenbaum with the article "Quantitative Universality for a Class of Nonlinear Transformations" described logistic maps. They notably discovered the universality in chaos, permitting an application of chaos theory to many different phenomena. theory HistoryThen in 1986, the New York Academy of Sciences co-organized with the National Institute of Mental Health and the Office of Naval Research the first important conference on Chaos in biology and medicine. There, Bernardo Huberman presented a mathematical model of the eye tracking disorder among schizophrenics. This led to a renewal of physiology in the 1980s through the application of chaos theory, for example in the study of pathological cardiac cycles. theory HistoryAt first the domain of work of a few, isolated individuals, chaos theory progressively emerged as a transdisciplinary and institutional discipline, mainly under the name of nonlinear systems analysis theory HistoryThe availability of cheaper, more powerful computers broadens the applicability of chaos theory. Currently, chaos theory continues to be a very active area of research, involving many different disciplines (mathematics, topology, physics, social systems, population biology, biology, meteorology, astrophysics, information theory, computational neuroscience, etc.). theory ApplicationsChaos theory is applied in many scientific disciplines, including: geology, mathematics, microbiology, biology, computer science, economics, engineering, finance, algorithmic trading, meteorology, philosophy, physics, politics, population dynamics, psychology, and robotics. theory ApplicationsChaos theory is currently being applied to medical studies of epilepsy, specifically to the prediction of seemingly random seizures by observing initial conditions. theory ApplicationsQuantum chaos theory studies how the correspondence between quantum mechanics and classical mechanics works in the context of chaotic systems. Relativistic chaos describes chaotic systems under general relativity. theory TextbooksKiel, L. Douglas; Elliott, Euel W. (1997). Chaos Theory in the Social Sciences. Perseus Publishing. ISBN 0-472-08472-0. theory Semitechnical and popular worksAbraham, Ralph H.; Ueda, Yoshisuke, eds. (2000). The Chaos Avant-Garde: Memoirs of the Early Days of Chaos Theory. World Scientific. ISBN 978-981-238-647-2. theory Semitechnical and popular worksJohn Briggs and David Peat, Turbulent Mirror: : An Illustrated Guide to Chaos Theory and the Science of Wholeness, Harper Perennial 1990, 224 pp. theory Semitechnical and popular worksL Douglas Kiel, Euel W Elliott (ed.), Chaos Theory in the Social Sciences: Foundations and Applications, University of Michigan Press, 1997, 360 pp. systems - Complexity and chaos theoryComplexity theory is rooted in chaos theory, which in turn has its origins more than a century ago in the work of the French mathematician Henri Poincar systems - Complexity and chaos theoryWhen one analyzes complex systems, sensitivity to initial conditions, for example, is not an issue as important as within the chaos theory in which it prevails science - Complexity and chaos theory Complexity theory is rooted in chaos theory, which in turn has its origins more than a century ago in the work of the French mathematician Henri Poincar science - Complexity and chaos theory When one analyzes complex systems, sensitivity to initial conditions, for example, is not an issue as important as within the chaos theory in which it prevails theory in organizational developmentIn organizational development, 'chaos theory' is a subset of more general chaos theory that incorporates principles of quantum mechanics and presents them in a complex systems environment systems theory - Chaos theory :Chaos theory describes the behavior of certain dynamical system (definition)|dynamical systems that is, systems whose state evolves with time that may exhibit dynamics that are highly sensitive to initial conditions (popularly referred to as the butterfly effect) Shaw (physicist) - Chaos theoryHe was one of the pioneers of Chaos (physics)|chaos theory and his work at University of California, Santa Cruz on the subject was among the first research into the relationship between predictable motion and chaos in a landmark PhD thesis.Robert Shaw, The Dripping Faucet As a Model Chaotic System, Science Frontier Express Series, Aerial Press, December 1984, December 1984 ISBN 0-942344-05-7 Simulation - Hermeneutics, fuzzy logic, and chaos theory Chaos theory looks for order in chaotic systems, looking for repeating patterns such as fractals Theory (disambiguation)* Chaos Theory Splinter Cell 3 Soundtrack Theory (disambiguation)* Chaos Theory (The Unit)|Chaos Theory (The Unit) Cell - Tom Clancy's Splinter Cell: Chaos Theory (2005)Ubisoft Montreal was again responsible for the third game in the series, Chaos Theory. It adds a cooperative multiplayer mode. Originally announced to be released in Fall 2004, its initial releases were made at the end of March 2005. Again the Unreal Engine was heavily modified, this time from version 2.5. Theory (film)'Chaos Theory' is a 2008 comedy-drama film starring Ryan Reynolds, Emily Mortimer and Stuart Townsend. The film was directed by Marcos Siega, written by Daniel Taplitz and Kathy Gori and was shot in Vancouver|Vancouver, Canada. Theory (film) - Reception Chaos Theory received generally negative reviews from critics on Rotten Tomatoes and Metacritic. As of July 27, 2011, the review aggregator Rotten Tomatoes reported that 29% of critics gave the film positive reviews, based on 58 reviews. Metacritic reported the film had an average score of 44 out of 100, based on 18 reviews as of August 2009. More Information, Visit: Art of Service