changes in ecosystems: ecological succession know this for the quiz

Download Changes in Ecosystems: Ecological Succession Know this for the quiz

Post on 17-Jan-2016




0 download

Embed Size (px)


  • Changes in Ecosystems:Ecological SuccessionKnow this for the quiz

  • SuccessionNatural, gradual changes in the types of species that live in an area; can be primary or secondary The gradual replacement of one plant community by another through natural processes over time

  • Primary SuccessionBegins in a place without any soil Sides of volcanoesLandslidesFloodingStarts with the arrival of living things such as lichens that do not need soil to surviveCalled PIONEER SPECIES

  • Lichens!

  • Primary SuccessionSoil starts to form as lichens and the forces of weather and erosion help break down rocks into smaller piecesWhen lichens die, they decompose, adding small amounts of organic matter to the rock to make soil

  • Next Generation after Lichens Mosses, small plants (ferns)

  • Primary SuccessionSimple plants like mosses and ferns can grow in the new soil

  • Primary SuccessionThe simple plants die, adding more organic materialThe soil layer thickens, and grasses, wildflowers, and other plants begin to take over

  • Primary SuccessionThese plants die, and they add more nutrients to the soilShrubs and tress can survive now

  • Primary SuccessionInsects, small birds, and mammals have begun to move inWhat was once bare rock now supports a variety of life

  • Secondary SuccessionBegins in a place that already has soil and was once the home of living organisms Occurs faster and has different pioneer species than primary succession Example: after forest fires




  • Climax CommunityA stable group of plants and animals that is the end result of the succession processDoes not always mean big treesGrasses in prairiesCacti in deserts

  • Climax CommunityA climax community of plants and animals which, through the process of ecological succession the development of vegetation in an area over time has reached a steady state. The climax community is composed of species best adapted to average conditions in that area.

  • Climax CommunityClimax communities have the most diversity of species which also helps stabilize them (communities in succession begin by being very simple (only a very few species and gradually become more complex)