challenges to the “concert” system: conservative order /reform & revolution 1815-1848

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Led to Was challenged by Was challenged by The Conservative Order & the Economic Advance -Nationalism -Threatened to breakup empires (Aus,Rus,Ottoman) -Threatened to unify others (Germany, Italy) -Liberalism -Elected parliaments -Free trade -Laissez-faire - Conservativism -Austria- Metternich suppress lib & nat -German States- Carlsbad Decrees -Russia- Decembrists -Britain- Peterloo/Six Acts -France- The Charter/July Revolution - Spanish Revolution (1820) -Concert of Europe -Latin American Revolutions -Haiti, South America Nationalism & Liberalism -Population/Migration -Improvements in transp -Railways,steamships,canals -New Labor Force -Working Class -Wage labor -chartism -Family Structures -Role of Women -Child labor- Factory Act Prison Reform -Police Force (bobbies) -Penal Colonies (Aus/NZ) -Auburn & Philadelphia System Philosophies Pol/Econ Philosophies & Revolutions -Classical Economics -Adam Smith -Laissez-faire -Thomas Malthus -Population theory -David Ricardo -Iron Law of Wages -Early Socialism -Utopian Socialism -St. Simon/Owen/Fourier -Anarchism -Blanqui -Proudhon -Marxism -Communist Manifesto/Kapital -Revolutions of Liberals & Nationalists rise up against European conservative order Industrial Society Challenges to the Conservative Order

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Challenges to the Concert System: Conservative Order /Reform & Revolution The Conservative Order & the Economic Advance Objective: Students are to analyze the prevailing political and economic philosophies that propelled the historical events of the first half of the 19th century. 1. Analyze the political and economic theories prevalent in conservatism, liberalism, radicalism (socialism/communism). 2. Analyze the social effects among the nobility, bourgeoisie, proletariat and the peasantry. 3. Analyze the goals of the Concert of Europe and how liberalism and nationalism challenged these goals. 4. Analyze the how romanticism fueled nationalism. 5. Compare and contrast the American Revolution with the Revolutions in Latin America. 6. Analyze how reforms, revolts and revolutions in Europe challenged the conservative order. 7. Analyze the emergence of new social classes and how this new working class became politically active. 8. Analyze the family structures among the working class and women. 9. Compare and contrast the philosophies of classical economics with early forms of socialism. 10. Analyze the causes of the Revolutions of 1848. Led to Was challenged by Was challenged by The Conservative Order & the Economic Advance -Nationalism -Threatened to breakup empires (Aus,Rus,Ottoman) -Threatened to unify others (Germany, Italy) -Liberalism -Elected parliaments -Free trade -Laissez-faire - Conservativism -Austria- Metternich suppress lib & nat -German States- Carlsbad Decrees -Russia- Decembrists -Britain- Peterloo/Six Acts -France- The Charter/July Revolution - Spanish Revolution (1820) -Concert of Europe -Latin American Revolutions -Haiti, South America Nationalism & Liberalism -Population/Migration -Improvements in transp -Railways,steamships,canals -New Labor Force -Working Class -Wage labor -chartism -Family Structures -Role of Women -Child labor- Factory Act Prison Reform -Police Force (bobbies) -Penal Colonies (Aus/NZ) -Auburn & Philadelphia System Philosophies Pol/Econ Philosophies & Revolutions -Classical Economics -Adam Smith -Laissez-faire -Thomas Malthus -Population theory -David Ricardo -Iron Law of Wages -Early Socialism -Utopian Socialism -St. Simon/Owen/Fourier -Anarchism -Blanqui -Proudhon -Marxism -Communist Manifesto/Kapital -Revolutions of Liberals & Nationalists rise up against European conservative order Industrial Society Challenges to the Conservative Order Geography Paris London ENGLAND FRANCE Mediterranean Sea. Amsterdam NETHERLANDS William and Mary replace James II in the Glorious Revolution in They make the English Bill of Rights in Revolution ends monarchy. French go from monarchy to democracy to monarchy. AFRICA EUROPE Russia Austria Ottoman Empire France Great Britain Spain Nether lands Swiss Sardinia- Piedmont Spanish Naples Papal States Rep of Venice Italian States Europe 1815 Prussia Confederation of the Rhine (German States) Kingdom of Sweden Following the Napoleonic Wars, nationalism threatened to breakup the empires of Austria, Russia, and the Ottoman Empire. However, nationalism was also stirring in the Italian and German states that could potentially unify these peoples into nation-states. Liberalism also threatened to topple existing regimes or force representative governments with constitutions upon the autocratic monarchies of Europe. The Revolutions of 1830 and 1848 will dramatically illustrate that point. Czech It Ger Slov Pol Hun Serb/ Croat Rom Pol Lith Lat Est Fin Greek Serb Mace Ukr Bul Scot Ire Bel Denmark Nor Alb Basque Portugal Napoleonic nationalism Austria RussiaOttoman Empire Italian German nation-states Liberalism regimes representative constitutions autocratic The Conservative Order and the Challenges of Reform The Congress of Vienna -Failure of statesmen who shaped the future of Europe in attempted to provide some way of preserving the future peace of Europe. Congress of Vienna -met in 1814 and 1815 to redraw the map of Europe after the Napoleonic era -Europe was spared a general war throughout the remainder of the 19th century - *Didnt recognize the factors unleashed by the French Revolution: -Nationalism and liberalism Attempted to maintain the status quo The Big Four Czar Alexander I (Russia) Advocated an independent Poland under Russian control The Vienna Settlement was the work of the representatives of the four nations that had done the most to defeat Napoleon. Prince Klemens Von Metternich (Austria) Epitomized conservative reactionism. Lord Castlereagh (England) balance of power on the continent and surround France with larger stronger states. Karl Von Hardenberg Karl Von Hardenberg (Prussia) Goal was to recover Prussian territory lost to Napoleon & gain additional territory in northern Germany (Saxony). Talleyrand not initially included in the early deliberations Periogord Talleyrand- French Foreign Minister Talleyrand brought France into the ranks of the principal powers. Mediator where the interests of Prussia and Russia clashed with those of England and Austria. The Dancing Congress European gathering was held amid much pageantry. Parties, balls, and banquets reminded the delegates what life had been like before Intended to generate favorable public opinion and occupy the delegates since they had little to do of any serious nature. Principles of Settlement The three main principles discussed at the Congress of Vienna were: Legitimacy Returning to power the ruling families deposed Dynasties restored in Holland, Sardinia, Tuscany and Modena Compensation Territorially rewarding those states which had made considerable sacrifices to defeat Napoleon. Balance of Power Meant arranging the map of Europe so that never again could one state upset the international order and cause a general war. Various adjustments were made in the countries of Europe in order to surround France. Enforcement of the Status Quo Arrangements to guarantee the enforcement of the status quo as defined by the Vienna settlement now included tow provisions: The Holy Alliance An unpractical attempt to unify Europe, only taken seriously by Alexander I of Russia. The Quadruple Alliance Russia, Prussia, England and Austria provided for concerted action to arrest any threat to the peace or balance of power. England and Austria differed on their definition of concerted action. The Congress System From 1815 to 1822, European international relations were controlled by the series of meetings held by the Great Powers to monitor and defined the status quo: The Congress of Aix-la-Chapelle (1816) The Congress of Troppau (1820) The Congress of Laibach (1821) The Congress of Verona (1822) The principle of collective security required unanimity among members of the Quadruple Alliance. -Failure occurred because of the conflicting interests of the Great Powers Evaluation The Congress of Vienna has been criticized for ignoring the liberal and nationalist aspirations of so many peoples. -Hindsight suggests the statesmen at Vienna may have been more successful in stabilizing the international system than we have been able to do in the 20th century. Not until the unification of Germany in , was the balance of power upset. Not until World War I in 1914, did Europe have another general war. -Hindsight tells us however that the leading statesmen at Vienna underestimated the new nationalism and liberalism generated by the French Revolution. Conservatism, Nationalism, & Liberalism Conservatism Edmund Burke- Father of Conservative Thought Early Conservatism allied to the restored monarchial governments of Austria, Russia, France, and England. Reaction to liberalism became a popular alternative for those frightened by the violence of the French Revolution. Support for conservatism: came from the traditional ruling classes. Also supported by the peasants -A majority of the population Supported by Romantic writers conservatives believed in order, society and the state, faith and tradition. Characteristics of Conservatism To conservatives, society was hierarchical. Conservatives viewed history as a continuum (Traditions) Conservative Beliefs: The basis of society is organic, not contractual Stability and longevity, not progress and change, mark a good society. The only legitimate sources of political authority were God and history. Rejected the social contract theory Conservatives believed self- interests do not lead to social harmony, but to social conflict. Denounced individualism and natural rights. Liberalism Liberalism was reformist and political not revolutionary in nature. Liberalism -first major theory in the to teach that the individual is a self- sufficient being, whose freedom is the sole reasons for the existence of society. -Come from the middle classes and favored increased liberty for their class and indirectly, for the masses of people, as long as the latter did not in their turn ask for too much freedom -Come from the middle classes and favored increased liberty for their class and indirectly, for the masses of people, as long as the latter did not in their turn ask for too much freedom Characteristics of Liberalism Liberals also advocated the Balance of Power theory and free trade. Individuals are entitled to seek their freedom in the face of arbitrary or tyrannical restrictions imposed upon them. Supported the concept of natural rights. Best guaranteed by written constitutions. Utilitarianism Founded by Jeremy Bentham theory held the pleasure- pain principle as its key idea. equated pleasure with good and pain with evil. Supported the concept of the greatest happiness for the greatest number. Economic Liberalism Adam Smith- The Wealth of Nations David Ricardo- The Iron Law of Wages Liberals advocated economic individualism. All Supported laissez faire economics Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith 1776 Economic liberalism Free Trade Laissez-faire Ricardos Principles of Political Economy Iron Law of Wages Thomas Malthus Essay on the Principle of Population p