ch. 9 motivation: motivating employees and building self-managed teams

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Ch. 9 Motivation: Motivating Employees and Building Self-Managed Teams

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Ch. 9 Motivation: Motivating Employees and Building Self-Managed Teams. *. The Value of Motivation. *. Intrinsic Rewards: Personal satisfaction felt for a job well done. Kinds of Intrinsic Rewards:. INTRINSIC REWARDS. Pride in your performance Sense of achievement. 10- 2. *. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Slide 1

Ch. 9 Motivation: Motivating Employees and Building Self-Managed Teams

1**INTRINSIC REWARDSIntrinsic Rewards: Personal satisfaction felt for a job well done. Kinds of Intrinsic Rewards:The Value of Motivation

Pride in your performanceSense of achievement10-2See Learning Goal 1: Explain Taylors scientific management.

Intrinsic means from within; when you have a drive to succeed and are motivated by purpose, passion, and mission.**EXTRINSIC REWARDSExtrinsic Rewards: Something given as a recognition of good work. Kinds of Extrinsic Rewards:Pay RaisesPromotionsAwardsThe Value of Motivation

10-3See Learning Goal 1: Explain Taylors scientific management.

Extrinsic rewards are often temporary and driven by money, recognition and results.** FREDERICK TAYLOR: FATHER of SCIENTIFIC MANAGEMENTScientific Management Studying workers to determine the most efficient ways of doing things and then teaching those techniques. Three Key Elements to Increase Productivity TimeMethods of WorkRules of WorkLG1Frederick Taylor: The Father of Scientific Management

10-4See Learning Goal 1: Explain Taylors scientific management.**TAYLORS FOUR KEY PRINCIPLESStudy how a job is performed.Gather time & motion information.Check different methods.Codify the best method into rules.Choose workers whose skill matches the rules.Establish a fair level of performance and pay.LG1Frederick Taylor: The Father of Scientific Management10-5See Learning Goal 1: Explain Taylors scientific management.

Taylor was looking for the most efficient way or the one right way to do something. Workers were, in a sense, thought of as machines that could be fine tuned. **TIME-MOTION STUDIESTime-Motion Studies: Studies of which tasks must be performed to complete a job and the time needed to do each task.Led to the development of the Principle of Motion Economy: Every job can be broken down into a series of elementary motions; developed by Frank and Lillian Gilbreth.LG1Frederick Taylor: The Father of Scientific Management10-6See Learning Goal 1: Explain Taylors scientific management.**HAWTHORNE STUDIES: PURPOSE AND RESULTSResearchers studied worker efficiency under different levels of light. (Elton Mayo, Harvard)Productivity increased regardless of light condition.LG2Elton Mayo and the Hawthorne StudiesResearchers decided it was a human or psychological factor at play.Hawthorne Effect: People act differently when they know they are being studied.

10-7See Learning Goal 2: Describe the Hawthorne studies and their significance to management.

The Hawthorne studies were conducted in Cicero, Illinois at the Western Electric plant over a six year period.

**MASLOWS THEORY of MOTIVATIONHierarchy of Needs: Theory of motivation based on unmet human needs from basic physiological needs to safety, social and esteem needs to self-actualization needs.Needs that have already been met do not motivate.If a need is filled, another higher-level need emerges.LG3Motivation and Maslows Hierarchy of Needs10-8See Learning Goal 3: Identify the levels of Maslows hierarchy of needs and apply them to employee motivation.

**MASLOWS HIERARCHY of NEEDSLG3Motivation and Maslows Hierarchy of Needs

10-9See Learning Goal 3: Identify the levels of Maslows hierarchy of needs and apply them to employee motivation.

Maslows Hierarchy of Needs This slide reproduces the illustration of Maslows Hierarchy from the chapter. Most people in the class, especially those that have taken basic psychology, may be familiar with Maslow and the premise of human needs hierarchy. Use this opportunity to relate Maslows need theory to the work environment:Workers require competitive salaries, benefits and clean work environments.Employees have the need for security against termination in their jobs and the feeling of being safe against bodily harm while performing their job functions.On the job, workers have the need to feel a part of a successful group, driven by achievement.Employees seek opportunities for advancement, empowerment, recognition, and responsibility through additional work-related performance. Companies must attempt to satisfy these needs through opportunities within the organization.**HERZBERGS MOTIVATING FACTORSHerzbergs research centered on two questions:LG4Herzbergs Motivating Factors

What factors controlled by managers are most effective in increasing worker motivation?How do workers rank job-related factors in order of importance related to motivation?

10-10See Learning Goal 4: Distinguish between the motivators and hygiene factors identified by Herzberg.**JOB CONTENTHerzberg: Found that job content factors were most important to workers. Workers like to feel they contribute to the company.Motivators: Job factors that cause employees to be productive and that give them satisfaction.LG4Herzbergs Motivating Factors

10-11See Learning Goal 4: Distinguish between the motivators and hygiene factors identified by Herzberg.

Herzbergs article in the Harvard Business Review, One More Time: How Do You Motivate Employees? is a classic and explores his idea of job content in depth. **JOB ENVIRONMENTJob environment factors maintained satisfaction but did not motivate employees.Hygiene Factors: Job factors that can cause dissatisfaction if missing but that do not necessarily motivate employees if increased.LG4Herzbergs Motivating Factors

10-12See Learning Goal 4: Distinguish between the motivators and hygiene factors identified by Herzberg.

**HERZBERGS MOTIVATORS and HYGIENE FACTORSLG4Herzbergs Motivating Factors10-13MotivatorsHygiene FactorsWork itselfCompany policy and administrationAchievementSupervisionRecognitionWorking conditionsResponsibilityInterpersonal relationsGrowth and advancementSalary, status and job securitySee Learning Goal 5: Differentiate among Theory X, Theory Y, and Theory Z.

McGregors TheoriesTheory X suggests that employees dislike work, avoid responsibility, have little ambition, and are motivated by threat and fear. Theory Y argues that people like work, seek responsibility, and are motivated by empowerment. If a manager believes theory X or Theory Y, s/he would tend to treat the employees accordingly.

Ask the students: Would you be a Theory X or Y manager? How do you believe employees should be treated? Would you prefer to work for a Theory X or Y manager? (The majority if not all would say they would rather work for a Theory Y manager. It should be pointed out that how a manager treats employees is often dictated by the situation. A manager may hold Theory Y values but may have to use Theory X perspective depending upon the situation with the employee.)**COMPARISON of the THEORIES of MASLOW and HERZBERGLG4Herzbergs Motivating Factors10-14

See Learning Goal 5: Differentiate among Theory X, Theory Y, and Theory Z.

McGregors TheoriesTheory X suggests that employees dislike work, avoid responsibility, have little ambition, and are motivated by threat and fear. Theory Y argues that people like work, seek responsibility, and are motivated by empowerment. If a manager believes theory X or Theory Y, s/he would tend to treat the employees accordingly.

Ask the students: Would you be a Theory X or Y manager? How do you believe employees should be treated? Would you prefer to work for a Theory X or Y manager? (The majority if not all would say they would rather work for a Theory Y manager. It should be pointed out that how a manager treats employees is often dictated by the situation. A manager may hold Theory Y values but may have to use Theory X perspective depending upon the situation with the employee.)**THEORY X and THEORY YDouglas McGregor proposed managers had two different sets of assumptions concerning workers.Their attitudes about motivating workers was tied to these assumptions.McGregor called them Theory X and Theory Y.LG5McGregors Theory X and Theory Y10-15See Learning Goal 5: Differentiate among Theory X, Theory Y, and Theory Z.

McGregors TheoriesTheory X suggests that employees dislike work, avoid responsibility, have little ambition, and are motivated by threat and fear. Theory Y argues that people like work, seek responsibility, and are motivated by empowerment. If a manager believes theory X or Theory Y, s/he would tend to treat the employees accordingly.

Ask the students: Would you be a Theory X or Y manager? How do you believe employees should be treated? Would you prefer to work for a Theory X or Y manager? (The majority if not all would say they would rather work for a Theory Y manager. It should be pointed out that how a manager treats employees is often dictated by the situation. A manager may hold Theory Y values but may have to use Theory X perspective depending upon the situation with the employee.)**ASSUMPTIONS of THEORY X MANAGERSWorkers dislike work and seek to avoid it.Workers must be forced or threatened with punishment to get them to perform.Workers prefer to be directed and avoid responsibilityOnly effective motivators are fear and money. LG5McGregors Theory X and Theory Y

10-16See Learning Goal 5: Differentiate among Theory X, Theory Y, and Theory Z.

**ASSUMPTIONS of THEORY Y MANAGERSPeople like work, its a part of life.Workers seek goals they are committed toward.Commitment to goals depends on perceived rewards.People can use creativity to solve problems.Intellectual capacity is only partially realized.People are motivated by a variety of rewards. LG5McGregors Theory X and Theory Y10-17See Learning Goal 5: Differentiate among Theory X, Theory Y, and Theory Z.

**GOAL-SETTING THEORYGoal-Setting Theory: Setting ambitious, but attainable goals can motivate workers and improve performance if the goals are accepted, accompanied by feedback, and facilitated. Management by Objectives (MBO): Involves a cycle of discussion, review and evaluation of objectives among top and middle-level managers, supervisors and employees. Managers formulate goals in cooperation with everyone. Monitor results and reward achievement.LG6Goal-Setting Theory and Management by Objectives10-18See Learning Goal 6: Explain the key principles of goal-setting, expectancy, reinforcement, and equity theories.

Peter Drucker developed the idea of MBO in his 1954 book The Practice of Management. **EXPECTANCY THEORY in MOTIVATIONExpectancy Theory: The amount of effort employees exert on a specific task depends on their expectations of the outcome. Employees ask:Can I accomplish the task?Whats my reward?Is the reward worth the effort?Expectations can vary from person to person.LG6Goal-Setting Theory and Management by Objectives10-19

See Learning Goal 6: Explain the key principles of goal-setting, expectancy, reinforcement, and equity theories.

Peter Drucker developed the idea of MBO in his 1954 book The Practice of Management. **5 CHARACTERISTICS of WORK Skill Variety Task Identity Task Significance Autonomy FeedbackLG7Motivation Through Job Enrichment10-20Job Enrichment: A motivational strategy that emphasizes motivating the worker through the job itself.

See Learning Goal 7: Show how managers put motivation theories into action through such strategies as job enrichment, open communication, and job recognition.**TYPES of JOB ENRICHMENTJob Enlargement: A job enrichment strategy that involves combining a series of tasks into one challenging and interesting assignment.Job Rotation: A job enrichment strategy that involves moving employees from one job to another.LG7Motivation Through Job Enrichment10-21See Learning Goal 7: Show how managers put motivation theories into action through such strategies as job enrichment, open communication, and job recognition.**USING OPEN COMMUNICATIONCreate a culture that rewards listening.Train managers to listen.Use effective questioning techniques.Remove barriers to open communication.Ask employees whats important to them.LG7Motivating Through Open Communication10-22

See Learning Goal 7: Show how managers put motivation theories into action through such strategies as job enrichment, open communication, and job recognition.**RECOGNIZING GOOD WORKRaises are not the only ways to recognize an employees performance. Recognition can also include:Paid time offFlexible schedulingWork from home opportunitiesPaid child or elder careStock options or profit sharingCompany awardsCompany events or teamsLG7Recognizing a Job Well Done

10-23See Learning Goal 7: Show how managers put motivation theories into action through such strategies as job enrichment, open communication, and job recognition.

Remember rewarding performance can come in different formats than money. What are other ways to recognize good performance?23**WORK WELL with OTHERSKeys for Productive TeamworkHave a common understanding of your task.Clarify roles and responsibilities.Set rules.Get to know each other.Communicate openly and often.Source: Wall Street Journal Research, September 2007.

Recognizing a Job Well DoneLG710-24See Learning Goal 7: Show how managers put motivation theories into action through such strategies as job enrichment, open communication, and job recognition.

High Performance Teams This slide presents characteristics of high performance teams. This list is compiled from the Wall Street Journal on high performance teams. Ask the students in teams to explore these characteristics as they relate to teams they have been on. Which of these characteristics apply to their team and which are lacking? What modifications do they need to make to move towards being a high performance team?

** MOTIVATING ACROSS the GENERATIONSBaby Boomers (1946 1964)Experienced great economic prosperity, job security, optimism about their futureGeneration X (1965 1980)Raised in dual-career families, attended day care, feeling of insecurity about jobsGeneration Y or Millenials (1980 2000)Raised by indulgent parents, used to many comforts like computers and cell phonesLG8Motivating Employees Across Generations10-25See Learning Goal 8: Show how managers personalize motivation strategies to appeal to employees across the global and across generations.

Managers must consider cultural differences, and they must also contend with employees in different age groups. To start a discussion ask students what issues they may encounter if they managed employees from Baby Boomers, Generation X, and Generation Y?25**GENERATION X in the WORKPLACEDesire economic security but focus more on career security more than job security.Good motivators as managers due to emphasis on results rather than work hours.Tend to be flexible and good at collaboration and consensus building.Very effective at giving employee feedback and praise.LG8Motivating Employees Across Generations10-26See Learning Goal 8: Show how managers personalize motivation strategies to appeal to employees across the global and across generations.

26**GENERATION Y in the WORKPLACETend to be impatient, skeptical, blunt and expressive.Are tech-savvy and able to grasp new concepts.Able to multi-task and are efficient.Highlight a strong sense of commitment.Place a high value on work-life balance.Fun and stimulation are key job requirements.LG8Motivating Employees Across Generations10-27See Learning Goal 8: Show how managers personalize motivation strategies to appeal to employees across the global and across generations.

27**IN CONCLUSIONWhy is it so important to understand motivation in the workplace?Why is it important to adjust motivational styles to individual employees? Are there any general principles of motivation that todays managers should follow?Progress Assessment 10-28What are several steps firms can take to increase internal communications and motivation? To increase communication managers can: Reward listening across the organization, train supervisors and managers to listen use effective questioning techniques, remove barriers to communication, avoid vague and ambiguous communication, make it easy to communicate, and ask employees what is important to them. Focusing on communication is important, but managers can also focus on job enrichment such as skill variety and task significance.

What problems may emerge when firms try to implement participative management? Participative management if implemented properly can be successful, but like everything in life, there are benefits and weaknesses to this type of management style. One problem with this approach is that it is difficult to implement and workers may spend more time formulating suggestions than actually solving the problem at hand.

Why is it important to adjust motivational styles to individual employees? Are there any general principles of motivation that todays managers should follow? In todays multicultural workplace managers cannot use one motivational formula for all employees. While they must adjust motivational styles, it is essential that managers give all employees the keys to do a good job: the tools, right information, and the right amount of cooperation. Motivating employees across cultures and generations can be simple if managers acknowledge a job well done.