ch 8 11 appendicular skeleton muscle

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  • 1. Skeletal muscle
    • is striated.
    • is largely under voluntary control.
    • is primarily regulated by hormones from the endocrine system.
    • A and B are correct.
    • A, B and C are correct.
  • 2. Which of the following is true?
    • The origin of a muscle on a limb is usually proximal to its insertion.
    • A muscle must cover the limb or other body part it moves.
    • Muscles crossing one joint have more complex actions than those crossing two joints.
    • 1 and 2 are correct.
  • 3. Antagonistic muscle groups
    • contract together to perform a coordinated movement
    • are usually located on the same side of a limb
    • perform opposite functions (opposite limbs)
    • are usually circular muscles
  • 4. The primary function of muscle is
    • conversion of heat energy into mechanical energy.
    • conversion of heat energy into chemical energy.
    • conversion of mechanical energy into heat energy.
    • conversion of chemical energy into mechanical energy.
  • 5. Ch 8 Appendicular Skeleton
    • Consists of the bones of the limbs and their girdles (attachments)
      • Pectoral girdles attach upper limbs to axial skeleton
      • Pelvic girdle attach lower limbs to axial skeleton
  • 6. Upper and lower limbs Upper limbs Lower limbs Similarities - Differences
  • 7. Pectoral (shoulder) girdle
    • OVERALL Function:
      • provide attachment points for muscles that move the upper limbs
      • to attach the upper limbs to the axial skeleton in a manner that allows for maximum movement
    Clavicle (anterior) Scapula (posterior) Function brace that holds scapula and arms to provide mobility for upper limbs Location attach to sternum (breastbone) anterior part of thorax DOES NOT join vertebrae posteriorly. muscles attach them to thoracic cage and vetebral column
  • 8. Clavicle (collarbone)
    • Fractured Clavicle
      • A fall on an outstretched arm (F.O.O.S.H.) injury can lead to a fractured clavicle
      • The clavicle is weakest at the junction of the two curves
      • Forces are generated through the upper limb to the trunk during a fall
      • Therefore, most breaks occur approximately in the middle of the clavicle
  • 9. Scapulae (Shoulder Blades) Type of joint Ball and socket. Synovial diarthroses Acromion articulates with clavicle Glenoid cavity shallow depression. Joint between scapula and humerus is shallow to allow for mobility Coracoid process &fossa sites of attachment for tendons and ligaments of shoulder muscles
  • 10. Glenohumeral (Shoulder) Joint
    • Flexibility vs stability
  • 11. Stability of Shoulder joint
  • 12. Rotator cuff muscles
    • Extend from scapula posterior to shoulder joint to attach to the humerus
    • Supraspinatus, infraspinatus, teres minor, subscapularis
    • Encircle the joint & fuse with articular capsule
    • Hold head of humerus in socket
  • 13. Upper Limb- Humerus (upper arm)
    • longest and largest bone of upper limb
    • articulates with
      • proximal end: scapula (head of humerous with glenoid cavity of scapula)
      • distal end: ulna and radius at elbow joint
  • 14. Moving the Forearm (elbow)
    • Flexors: biceps brachii, brachialis, and brachioradialis
    • Extensors: triceps brachii, anconeus.
    • Pronators: pronator teres and pronator quadratus.
    • Spinator: supinator
  • 15. Bones of the Forearm
    • Ulna (pinky side)
      • medial aspect of forearm
      • longer than radius
    • Radius (thumb side)
      • lateral aspect of forearm
      • proximal end has disc shaped head
    • articulate with each other at 3 sites
  • 16.
  • 17. The Hand
    • carpals (wrist)
    • metacarpals (palms)
    • phalanges (fingers)
    • What is carpal tunnel syndrome?
  • 18. Special Movements of hands & fingers Figure 8.6e
    • Supination - palm turned anteriorly (upward)
    • Pronation - palm turned posteriorly (downward)
    • Opposition - movement of thumb in which the thumb moves across palm to touch tips of fingers on same hand, eg allows us to pick up things, pincer grip.
  • 19. Some news articles
    • Double arm transplant
      • News article
    • Body Integrity Identity Diso rder
  • 20. Which of the following is true?
    • Muscles pull on bones
    • Muscles push on bones.
    • The end of the muscle attached to the bone that moves least is the insertion of that muscle.
    • The end of the muscle attached to the bone that moves most is the origin of the muscle.
  • 21. Skeletal muscles
    • may be contracted to maintain a static position
    • move materials through the body (smooth muscles)
    • are mainly unilateral
    • 1 and 2 are correct
  • 22. The pectoral girdle
    • includes the scapula.
    • includes the clavicle.
    • attaches the lower extremity to the trunk
    • A and B are correct
  • 23. Which part of the scapula articulates with the humerus?
    • glenoid cavity
    • acromium
    • Spine
    • coracoid process
    • medial border
  • 24. Skeleton of the Lower Limb
    • Two separate regions
    • A single pelvic girdle (2 bones)
    • The free part (30 bones)
    • Why are the lower limb bones larger and stronger than the upper limb bones?
    Copyright 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
  • 25. Pelvic Girdle (Hip)
    • Function
      • Attaches the lower limbs to axial skeleton with the strongest ligaments of the body
      • Transmits weight of the upper body to the lower limbs
      • Supports the visceral organs of the pelvis
    • Structure : pair of hip bones, sacrum and pubic symphysis
    How does the acetabulum compare with glenoid cavity?
  • 26. Hip (coxal) Bone
    • Consists of 3 bones which fused during adult hood (ilium, pubic bone, ischium)
  • 27. True and False Pelves
    • True pelvis - the bony pelvis inferior to the pelvic brim, has an inlet, an outlet and a cavity
    • Pelvic axis - path of baby during birth
    Copyright 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. a line from the sacral promontory to the upper part of the pubic symphysis
    • False pelvis - lies above pelvic brim
      • Contains no pelvic organs except urinary bladder (when full) and uterus during pregnancy
  • 28.
    • Structural differences are mainly due to adaptation needed for childbirth
    • Female pelvis
      • Tilted forward