Ch. 6 Hematology and Immunology Blood and the Lymphatic System

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<ul><li> Slide 1 </li> <li> Ch. 6 Hematology and Immunology Blood and the Lymphatic System </li> <li> Slide 2 </li> <li> Hematology is the medical specialty that studies the anatomy and physiology of the blood and uses diagnostic tests, medical and surgical procedures, and drugs to treat blood diseases. Immunology is the medical specialty that studies the anatomy and physiology of the lymphatic system and uses diagnostic tests, medical and surgical procedures, and drugs to treat lymphatic and immune response diseases. </li> <li> Slide 3 </li> <li> Two million red blood cells die every second. There are approximately 100,000 miles of blood vessels in the human body. Seven percent of a humans body weight is made up of blood. Each day 400 gallons of recycled blood are pumped through the kidneys. By donating just one pint of blood, four lives can be saved. Half your bodys red blood cells are replaced every seven days. Every two seconds, someone needs blood. There are approximately 1 billion red blood cells in two to three drops of blood. Your body usually replaces the volume of the blood you donate within 24 hours. </li> <li> Slide 4 </li> <li> Anatomy and Physiology Blood -Contains blood cells, blood cell fragments, water, proteins, and clotting factors. Function: transports oxygen, carbon dioxide, nutrients, and waste products. </li> <li> Slide 5 </li> <li> Lymphatic System: -Consists of the lymphatic vessels, lymph fluid, lymph nodes, lymphoid tissues, and lymphoid organs. -Forms a pathway throughout the body that is separate from that of the circulatory system. Function: Defends the body against microorganisms and cancerous cells. </li> <li> Slide 6 </li> <li> Anatomy of the Blood 1. Plasma -Yellow-ish clear liquid (about 90% water) that makes up 55% of the blood. -Contains parts of the blood: erythrocytes, leukocytes, and platelets; albumin, bilirubin, hormones, complement proteins, and clotting factors; creatinine and urea. </li> <li> Slide 7 </li> <li> Figure 6-2 Plasma </li> <li> Slide 8 </li> <li> Erythrocytes (Red Blood Cells) -Most numerous of the parts within the plasma. -Red blood cells are a round, somewhat flattened, red disk. -Do not have a nucleus. Live about 120 days. -Contains hemoglobin (iron-containing molecule) that bonds with oxygen and carbon dioxide. -Hematopoiesis, the process of forming blood cells, occurs in the red marrow of long or flat bones. </li> <li> Slide 9 </li> <li> Figure 6-3 Hematopoiesis. </li> <li> Slide 10 </li> <li> Life Cycle of an Erythrocytes: Begin as stem cells, erythroblasts, normoblasts, reticulocytes, and finally erythrocytes. When your body experiences blood loss, the kidneys secrete erythropoietin hormone that stimulates the production and maturity of erythrocytes. When blood cells die, their parts are recycled and stored in the body other uses. </li> <li> Slide 11 </li> <li> Leukocytes (White Blood Cells) Granulocytes: neutrophils eosinophils basophils Agranulocytes: lymphocytes monocytes -Can be identified by the presence or absence of granules in their cytoplasm and the shape of their nucleus. </li> <li> Slide 12 </li> <li> Neutrophils -Most common leukocyte, making up 40 to 60% of leukocytes in blood. Short lived: hours to days. -Nucleus has many segments or lobes, so they are also known as polymorphonucleated leukocytes (PMNs), polys, segs, or segmenters. -Develop from the red bone marrow. Function: engulf and destroy bacteria. </li> <li> Slide 13 </li> <li> Eosinophils -Make up just 1 to 4% of leukocytes -Nucleus has two lobes -Develop in the red marrow Function: engulf and destroy foreign cells (pollen, animal dander, etc.); release chemicals that kill parasites </li> <li> Slide 14 </li> <li> Basophils -Least common leukocyte, making up 0.5 to 1% of leukocytes. -Nucleus has more than one lobe. -Develop in the red marrow Function: release histamine at the site of tissue injury; release heparin, an anticoagulant. </li> <li> Slide 15 </li> <li> Lymphocytes -Make up 20 to 40% of leukocytes. -Smallest of the white blood cells. -Nucleus is round and nearly fills the cell. -Some lymphocytes live for just a few days, while others live for many years. -Begin development in red marrow; some become B cells or natural killer cells; others migrate to the thymus to become T cells. Function: destroy viruses and produce antibodies. </li> <li> Slide 16 </li> <li> Monocytes -Make up 2 to 4% of leukocytes. -Largest of the white blood cells. -Have a large amount of cytoplasm, and nucleus is large and kidney bean shaped. -Develop in the red marrow. Function: are phagocytes that engulf and destroy microorganisms, cancerous cells, dead leukocytes, and cellular debris. Are also macrophages. </li> <li> Slide 17 </li> <li> Table 6-1 Leukocyte Types and Characteristics </li> <li> Slide 18 </li> <li> Table 6-1 (continued) Leukocyte Types and Characteristics </li> <li> Slide 19 </li> <li> Thrombocytes -Different from other blood cells because they are only cell fragments; also called Platelets. -Active in the blood-clotting process. -Begin in the red marrow as stem cells that then become megakaryoblasts, and then mature into megakaryocytes, a very large cell. -Cytoplasm of the megakaryocyte breaks away at the edges to form cell fragments (thrombocytes) that are released into the blood. </li> <li> Slide 20 </li> <li> Blood Type -Rh is positive when antigens are present on erythrocytes. -Rh is negative when antigens are not present on erythrocytes. </li> <li> Slide 21 </li> <li> Slide 22 </li> <li> Physiology of Blood Clotting 1. Platelet Aggregation- Thrombocytes form clumps to decrease blood loss. 2. Coagulation- Blood clot forms. (fibrin) 3. Hemostasis- Cessation of bleeding. After clotting factors are activated, the remaining fluid portion of plasma is called serum. </li> <li> Slide 23 </li> <li> Figure 6-11 Blood clot Susumu Nishinaga/Photo Researchers, Inc. </li> <li> Slide 24 </li> <li> Table 6-3 Blood Clotting Factors </li> <li> Slide 25 </li> <li> Table 6-3 (continued) Blood Clotting Factors </li> <li> Slide 26 </li> <li> Anatomy of the Lymphatic System Structures: Lymphatic Vessels Lymph Lymph Nodes -Similar to the blood vessels, but have a starting point and an ending point. </li> <li> Slide 27 </li> <li> Beginning Point: fluid enters a lymphatic capillary and becomes lymph. End Point: ducts empty into large veins in the neck. </li> <li> Slide 28 </li> <li> Characteristics: -Lymphatic capillaries have large openings in their walls that allow microorganisms and cancerous cells to enter. -Valves within the system keep the lymph flowing in one direction. -Lymph Nodes- function to filter the lymph, contain lymphocytes and macrophages that destroy microorganisms. </li> <li> Slide 29 </li> <li> Tissues &amp; Organs of the Lymphatic System </li> <li> Slide 30 </li> <li> Physiology of the Immune Response Any microorganism that can cause disease is a pathogen. (bacteria, viruses, protozoa, fungi, yeasts) 1. Cytokines- chemicals released to injured part of body that sends white blood cells to the area. 2. Neutrophils- engulf and destroy bacteria that have been coated with antibodies. 3. Eosinophils- engulf and destroy any foreign cells, worms, eggsect. </li> <li> Slide 31 </li> <li> 4. Basophils- release histamine in response to microorganisms. 5. Monocytes- engulf and destroy pathogens that have been coated with antibodies. Also known as a macrophage. Produce: interferon, interleukin, &amp; tumor necrosis factor. 6. Lymphocytes NK (natural killer) Cells- recognize and destroy pathogens. B Cells- from the red bone marrow; work with macrophages, produce antibodies; activate T Cells. T Cells- from the thymus gland; Helper T-Cells, Memory T-Cells, Cytotoxic T-Cells, &amp; Suppressor T-Cells </li> <li> Slide 32 </li> <li> 7. Antibodies- coat pathogens to be destroyed by various types of phagocytes. Antibodies are also known as immunoglobulins. 8. Complement Proteins- nine different types; work with antibodies and drill holes into the pathogens cell wall. </li> <li> Slide 33 </li> <li> Diseases and Conditions Blood: -Blood Dyscrasia -Hemorrhage -Pancytopenia -Septicemia </li> <li> Slide 34 </li> <li> Erythrocytes: -Abnormal Red Blood Cell Morphology -Anemia Aplastic anemia Folic Acid Deficiency anemia Iron Deficiency anemia Pernicious anemia Sickle Cell anemia </li> <li> Slide 35 </li> <li> Figure 6-13 Microcytic, hypochromic erythrocytes Joaquin Carillo Farga/Photo Researchers, Inc. </li> <li> Slide 36 </li> <li> Figure 6-14 Sickle cell Eye of Science/Photo Researchers, Inc. </li> <li> Slide 37 </li> <li> Figure 6-15 Sickle cells in a capillary </li> <li> Slide 38 </li> <li> Erythrocytes: -Anisocytosis -Poikilocytosis -Polycythemia Vera -Thalassemia -Transfusion Reaction </li> <li> Slide 39 </li> <li> Leukocytes: -Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) -Leukemia -Mononucleosis -Multiple Myeloma </li> <li> Slide 40 </li> <li> Figure 6-16 Human immunodeficiency virus Chris Bjornberg/Photo Researchers, Inc. </li> <li> Slide 41 </li> <li> Figure 6-17 Acute lymphocytic leukemia Peres/Custom Medical Stock Photo, Inc. </li> <li> Slide 42 </li> <li> Thrombocytes: -Coagulopathy -Deep Venous Thrombosis (DVT) -Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation (DIC) -Hemophilia -Thrombocytopenia </li> <li> Slide 43 </li> <li> Figure 6-20 Deep venous thrombosis </li> <li> Slide 44 </li> <li> Lymphatic System: -Graft-Versus-Host Disease (GVHD) -Lymphadenopathy -Lymphedema -Lymphoma Hodgkins Lymphoma Non-Hodgkins Lymphoma -Splenomegaly -Thymoma </li> <li> Slide 45 </li> <li> Figure 6-19 Lymphadenopathy Custom Medical Stock Photo, Inc. </li> <li> Slide 46 </li> <li> Autoimmune Disorders: -Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 -Graves Disease -Hashimotos Thyroiditis -Inflammatory Bowel Disease -Multiple Sclerosis </li> <li> Slide 47 </li> <li> Autoimmune Disorders: -Myasthenia Gravis -Psoriasis -Rheumatoid Arthritis -Scleroderma -Systemic Lupus Erythematosus </li> <li> Slide 48 </li> <li> Slide 49 </li> <li> Slide 50 </li> <li> Laboratory and Diagnostic Procedures Blood Cell Tests: -Blood Type -Complete Blood Count (CBC) with Differential -Peripheral Blood Smear </li> <li> Slide 51 </li> <li> Table 6-4 Complete Blood Count (CBC) with Differential </li> <li> Slide 52 </li> <li> Slide 53 </li> <li> Coagulation Tests: -Activated Clotting Time (ACT) -Partial Thromboplastin Time (PTT) -Prothrombin Time (PT) </li> <li> Slide 54 </li> <li> Other Blood Tests: -Blood Chemistries -Ferritin </li> <li> Slide 55 </li> <li> Other Blood Tests: -Total iron-binding capacity (TIBC) -Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Tests ELISAFirst screening test done for HIV. Western BlotUsed to confirm a positive ELISA and make a diagnosis of HIV infection. Viral RNA Load TestMeasures tiny amounts of HIV RNA and monitors progression of the disease and response to antiretroviral drugs. p24 Antigen TestDetects the protein p24 in HIV CD4 countUsed to monitor the progression of the disease and response to antiretroviral drugs. </li> <li> Slide 56 </li> <li> Saliva Test: -OraSure Quick screening test that is done in the doctors office or clinic. It uses the same technology as the ELISA blood test. </li> <li> Slide 57 </li> <li> Serum Tests: -Electrophoresis -Monospot Urine Tests: -Bence Jones Protein -Schilling Test </li> <li> Slide 58 </li> <li> Radiologic Procedures: -Color Flow Duplex Ultrasonography -Lymphangiography </li> <li> Slide 59 </li> <li> Medical Procedures: -Bone Marrow Aspiration -Phlebotomy -Vaccination </li> <li> Slide 60 </li> <li> Figure 6-21 Phlebotomy Getty Images Photodisc-Royalty Free </li> <li> Slide 61 </li> <li> Blood Donation and Transfusion Procedures: -Blood donation -Blood Transfusion -Bone Marrow Transplantation (BMT) -Plasmapheresis -Stem cell transplantation </li> <li> Slide 62 </li> <li> Surgical Procedures: -Lymph node biopsy -Lymph node dissection -Splenectomy -Thymectomy </li> </ul>

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