Ch 2 ppt early and classical china

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AP World, China, Unit 1, Unit 2, Stearns


<ul><li>1.China, China, China AP WorldUnit 1 and 2 Mrs. Hals</li></ul> <p>2. Geography of China Zhongguo Middle Kingdom Extremely isolated Believed China was center of the Earth and the sole source of civilization W and SW Tien Shan and Himalayas N Gobi desert E Pacific Ocean 3. Nomadic Invaders Provided contact with outside world barbarians who lacked skills of a settled society 4. Shang Civlization 5. Chinas river valley civilization The valley along the Huang He (Yellow River) Irrigation, fertile farming, transportation River of Sorrows - **Controlling the flow of the riverwas such a large public works project it probablyhelped lead to the rise of a strong centralgovernment** Loess fine, windblown, yellow soil carried fromMongolia and Siberia Loess settles and raises water level Constant water control issues with dikes and levies Flooding, bad crops, starvation Symbol of Misfortune Xinjiang, Mongolia, and Manchuria Later Tibet (Xizang) 6. Shang ~1650 BCE group called the Shang gain control of N.China Dominate until 1027 BCE Capital city at Anyang, (walled) Shang kings controlled only a small area Led noble warriors into battle Loyal princes and nobles governed most of the land Probably head of clans the groups of families who claim acommon ancestor Probably similar to the city-states of Sumer instead ofthe centralized gvt of the Egyptian pharaohs 7. Tombs of Shang rulers Archaeologists found tomb of Fu Hao the wifeof Wu Ding, a Shang king Artifacts show Fu owned land and lead anarmy against invaders **suggests noblewomen had considerablestatus during the Shang period 8. Social Classes Royal family and class of noble warriors Leather armor, bronze weapons, horse-drawn chariots Early Chinese cities support a class of artisans andmerchants Artisans produced goods for nobles (bronze weapons, silk robes, jade jewelry) Merchants exchanged food and crafts made by local artisans Salt, cowrie shells, and other goods not in NE China Peasants majority of Shang China Farming villages, grueling lives, stone tools, maintaining dikes Men pledged allegiance to their noble lords 9. Religious Beliefs Complex religious beliefs Many gods and spirits of nature Shang Di (top god) + mother goddess who broughtplants and animals to Earth King is link between people and Shang Di Shang Di wouldnt respond to mortal pleas, only spirits of thegreatest mortals would relay pleas to Shang Di (like ancestorsspirits) Prayers for victory in war, good harvests, etc. Offer sacrifices of food to the ancestors Yin and Yang Yin = Earth, darkness, and female forces Yang = Heaven, light, and male forces Delicate balance must be maintained 10. Writing Oracle Bones Heating of animal bones or turtle shells to interpretcracks, answers a question posed to an ancestor Chinese characters Characters represent different word or idea 10,000 characters yikes!! Calligraphy Spoken languages vary, but written language is thesame 11. Zhou Dynasty 1029 BCE people of Zhou overthrow the Shang 1029 BCE 258 BCE Zhou Dynasty Peaked ~700 BCE Mandate of Heaven idea that divine right to rule isdecided by the gods Zhou promote this idea, claiming the last Shang king had beenso cruel that he enraged the gods, so the gods sent ruin to himand passed the Mandate of Heave to the Zhou Mandate of Heaven will later be used to explain dynastic cycle Floods, famine, and natural catastrophe are signs that a dynastyhas lost favor 12. Feudalism Zhou reward supporters by giving themcontrol of specific regions Local lords govern their own lands inreturn for military service and support tothe ruler Peasants that live on a lords land owe himmilitary serce 13. Zhou Economics Chinas economy grew Ironworking arrived ~500 BCE Iron axes and plows replace stone, wood, and bronze Increases food production New crops - soybeans Feudal lords organize large-scale irrigation works Increases food production Commerce expanded Begin using money copper coins (with holes so they could bestrung) make trade easier New roads and canals increase trade 14. Increasing population and prosperity Economic expansion = increase inpopulation Huang He people overflow into centralChina head to the Yangzi basin Feudal nobles expand territories Encourage peasants to settle the conqueredlands 15. Accomplishments Develop a 365.25 daycalendar Silkmaking Silk thread is made from thecocoons of silk worms Women did the laborious work Wove threads into a smoothcloth Dyed cloth with bright colors Became Chinas mostvaluable export Silk Road link China andMiddle East First Books Book of Songs poems aboutthe lives of farming andharvests, praises of kings,descriptions of courtceremonies, tender and sad 16. Accomplishments Territory expanded (when Huang He people overflowedand moved outward) Huanghe to Yangtze Middle Kingdom Rich agriculture with two different crops Wheat (N) Rice (S) Greater cultural unity Promoted linguistic unity Mandarin Chinese **largest group of people speaking the samelanguage in the world at this time Tried to limit primitive religious practices (human sacrifice) Encourage more limited ceremonies to worship gods (lesshuman sacrifice) 17. Decline of the Zhou Ruler was too weak to control feudal lords System relied on loyalties and allegiancebetween the king and feudal lords Regional disloyalties allows conflict to erupt,Zhous power is weakened Regional groups unify to work against Zhou Frequently invaded by nomadic peoples A new leader will emerge 18. Era of the Warring States 402 BCE 201 BCE Zhous system falls apart Regional ruler deposes the last Zhou emperorand makes himself the soul leader of China Qin Shi Huangdi 19. Confucius Born 551 BCE to a poor family Buddha and Socrates The Analects Philosophy focused on worldly goals, how to emphasize social order and good government Studied ancient text, explored the court, and taught 20. Confucian Principles: Five Relationships observing the fivebrings order and stability Father to son Elder brother to younger brother Husband to wife Ruler to subject Friend to friend Except for friendship, none of therelationships are equal Inferiors owe loyalty and obedience totheir superiors Filial Piety Respect for parents above all other duties Honesty, hard work, and concern forothers Do not do to others, what you do not wish yourself Government Ruler has responsibility to provide good government Ruler should be virtuous and lead by good example People owe respect and loyalty 21. Confucius view of women: Men were superior to women Womans duty to ensure stability of the familyand promote harmony in the home Correct behavior brings order and stability 22. Long lasting effects During the centuries after Confucius death, hisideas influenced every area of Chinese life Rulers rely on Confucian ideas and selectConfucian scholars as officials Emphasis on filial piety bolstered traditionalcustoms (like reverence for ancestors) Chinese civilization spread out Hundreds of millions of Koreans, Japanese, andVietnamese adopt some of the Confucianphilosophies 23. Legalism - Hanfeizi Hanfeizi died 233 BCE nature of man is evil. Hisgoodness is acquired Greed motivates most actions Strict laws and harshpunishments Only way to achieve order Strength, not goodness, is aleaders greatest virtue the ruler alone possesses power,wielding it like lightning or thunder Many feudal rulers becomelegalist rulers 24. Daoism Founded by Laozi Old Master Credited for writing The Way of Virtue This book greatly influenced Chinese life Daoism sought to live in harmony with nature Instead of trying to bring order to human affairs How does one find the Dao? Dao = the way of the universe Those who know the Dao do not speak of it, Those who speak of it do not know it Rejected conflict and strife End conflict between human desires and the simple ways of nature Be like water Yielding, yet an unstoppable force Government Unnatural and the cause of many problems If people are difficult to govern, it is because those in authority are too fond of action Best government governs the least 25. Daoism and the People Evolves into a popular religion with gods,goddesses, and magical practices Peasants turn to Daoist priests for charmsto protect them from unseen forces Confucian and Daoist teachings blend Confucianism shows how to behave Daoism influences view of natural world 26. Buddhism in China By 100 CE Mahayana Buddhism had spread fromIndia into China Chinese struggle with some aspects of Buddhism,but it steadily gains popularity Chinese valued family loyalty, but Buddhism honored monks and nuns who gave up family life for solitary meditation Buddhism offered escape from suffering, hope ofeternal happiness, Buddhas image as a compassionate, merciful god Ability for anyone to pray, commit good works, anddevotion and you could hope to gain salvation By 400 CE Buddhism spear throughout China andabsorbed many Confucian and Daoist traditions Chinese Buddhist monks stressed filial piety andhonored Confucius 27. Shi Huangdi ~221 BCE the Zhous wereoverthrown by Zheng whonamed himself Shi Huangdior First Emperor Spent 20 years conqueringmost of the warring states Centralized power with the helpof his Legalist advisers Rewarded merit, punished failure Built a strong, authoritariangovernment for the Qin dynasty 28. To unify China Shi Huangdi abolished feudalism Replaced feudal states with 36 military districtsand appointed loyal officials to administer them Sent inspectors to spy on local officials andreport back to him Forced noble families to live at Xianyang, thecapital, so he could monitor them Distributed the lands (of the nobles he justforced to move to the capital) to the peasants Peasants had to pay high taxes to support thearmies and building projects 29. Promoting unity Standardized weights andmeasures Unified coins with Qin coins Scholars created uniformity inChinese writing Workers repaired andextended roads and canals(strengthened transportationsys.) Law required cart axles to bethe same width to help withrut issues 30. Dont disagree! Jailed, tortured, and killedthose opposing his rule Feudal nobles and Confucianscholars suffer Book burning campaigndestroyed literature andphilosophy pieces Only medicine and agricultureaccounts were spared 31. The Great Wall of China 32. Most remarkable and costly achievement All the walls built by individual feudal states were ordered to bejoined Hundreds of thousands of laborers worked years, creating analmost 25 foot high wall, with a road on top wide enough to serve asa road Wall extended and rebuilt over centuries, now snakes for thousandsof miles across northern China Didnt keep out all invaders, but did show the emperors ability tomobilize the vast resources of China Great Wall became a symbol of protection and division from thenomadic barbarians 33. A new era When Shi Huangdi died ~210 BCE revoltserupt Anger over heavy taxes, forced labor, andcruel policies Liu Bang emerges, claims Mandate ofHeaven, take the title of Gao Zu An illiterate peasant leader Works to restore order and justice 34. Built mainly underground, carved out of low mountain top (according to legend), the construction itself took 700,000 prisoners of war and slaves over 36 years to constructand covers approximately four square miles. The as-yet-unearthed palace is reputedly of legendary grandeur. 35. Liu Bang Continues efforts tounify China Lowered taxes Eased harsh policies Appointed Confucianscholars as advisors Creates a strongfoundation for the Handynasty ~206 BCE 220 CE 36. Wudi Strengthened the government andeconomy by choosing Confucianadvisors Improved canals and roads (helpedeconomic growth) Built granaries to stabilize supply ofgrain Gvt would buy grain when it wasabundant and store it to sell atstable prices when it was scarce Imposed monopoly on salt and iron The sale of these products gave gvtan income supplemental to taxes 37. Expansionism increased territory Fought battles to expand Chinas borders Drove nomadic peoples back beyond theGreat Wall Created Chinese outposts in Manchuria,Korea, N. Vietnam, Tibet, and Central Asia Soldiers would slowly spread Chineseinfluence there 38. Silk Road Wudi opened up a trade route between China and the west Grapes, figs, cucumbers, and walnuts were new foods introduced to China Furs from Central Asia, muslin from India, glass from Rome 4,000 miles long, China to the Fertile Crescent Relayed trade in stages Persians monitored trade at the western end 39. Han emperors made Confucianism the official beliefsystem of the state Well educated scholars ran the bureaucraticgovernment, scholars were sent to a university at Xian toprepare Scholar-officials were like gentlemen, courteous, dignified, history, music, poetry, and Confucianteachings Civil Service Examination Positions to be given based on merit and qualifications Given on local, provincial, and national levels Confucian classics, histories, poems, and handbooks oncustoms Open to anyone, but really only to those who had time to study Sometimes rich families would pay for brilliant peasant boys to study Womens place in the 5 relationships kept them from beingallowed to take the exams Confucian influence continued for over 2,000 years 40. Collapse of the Han Empire Ability to control powerful warlords and local militaryleaders diminished Canals and roads fell into disrepair with weak emperors Heavy taxes and crushing debt = revolts Red Eyebrows and Green Woodsmen Thousands of peasants became members of secret rebelliongroups who fled their villages and hid in the mountains 220 CE warlords overthrew the last Han emperor China broke up into several kingdoms Invaders poured over the Great Wall and set up theirown states 41. Accomplishments Golden Age Achievements Science Invented a seismograph Wrote texts on chemistry, zoology, botany, astronomy Medicine Herbal remedies and anesthetics acupuncture Technology Made durable paper out of wood pulp (still used today) Advanced methods of shipmaking w/ rudder for steering Wheel barrows Suspension bridges 42. The Arts Beautiful wooden temples Jade and ivory carvings Ceramic figures Bronzeworkers and silkmakers 43. Han rulers created an empire about the size of theUnited States During the Han dynasty Chinese officials established thepattern of government that would survive until 1912 </p>