ch 13: meiosis and sexual life cycles

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  • Overview: Variations on a ThemeLiving organisms are distinguished by their ability to reproduce their own kindGenetics is the scientific study of heredity and variationHeredity is the transmission of traits from one generation to the nextVariation is demonstrated by the differences in appearance that offspring show from parents and siblings

  • Figure 13.1

  • Concept 13.1: Offspring acquire genes from parents by inheriting chromosomesIn a literal sense, children do not inherit particular physical traits from their parentsIt is genes that are actually inherited

  • Inheritance of GenesGenes are the units of heredity, and are made up of segments of DNAGenes are passed to the next generation via reproductive cells called gametes (sperm and eggs) Each gene has a specific location called a locus on a certain chromosomeMost DNA is packaged into chromosomes

  • Comparison of Asexual and Sexual Reproduction In asexual reproduction, a single individual passes genes to its offspring without the fusion of gametesA clone is a group of genetically identical individuals from the same parentIn sexual reproduction, two parents give rise to offspring that have unique combinations of genes inherited from the two parentsVideo: Hydra Budding

  • Figure 13.2(a) Hydra(b) RedwoodsBudParent0.5 mm

  • Figure 13.2aBudParent0.5 mm

  • Figure 13.2b(b) Redwoods

  • Concept 13.2: Fertilization and meiosis alternate in sexual life cyclesA life cycle is the generation-to-generation sequence of stages in the reproductive history of an organism

  • Sets of Chromosomes in Human CellsHuman somatic cells (any cell other than a gamete) have 23 pairs of chromosomesA karyotype is an ordered display of the pairs of chromosomes from a cell The two chromosomes in each pair are called homologous chromosomes, or homologsChromosomes in a homologous pair are the same length and shape and carry genes controlling the same inherited characters

  • Figure 13.3Pair of homologous duplicated chromosomesCentromereSister chromatidsMetaphase chromosome5 mAPPLICATIONTECHNIQUE

  • Figure 13.3a

  • Figure 13.3bPair of homologous duplicated chromosomesCentromereSister chromatidsMetaphase chromosome5 m

  • Figure 13.3c5 m

  • The sex chromosomes, which determine the sex of the individual, are called X and YHuman females have a homologous pair of X chromosomes (XX)Human males have one X and one Y chromosomeThe remaining 22 pairs of chromosomes are called autosomes

  • Each pair of homologous chromosomes includes one chromosome from each parentThe 46 chromosomes in a human somatic cell are two sets of 23: one from the mother and one from the fatherA diploid cell (2n) has two sets of chromosomesFor humans, the diploid number is 46 (2n = 46)

  • In a cell in which DNA synthesis has occurred, each chromosome is replicatedEach replicated chromosome consists of two identical sister chromatids

  • Figure 13.4Sister chromatids of one duplicated chromosomeKeyMaternal set of chromosomes (n 3)Paternal set of chromosomes (n 3)Key2n 6CentromereTwo nonsister chromatids in a homologous pairPair of homologous chromosomes (one from each set)

  • A gamete (sperm or egg) contains a single set of chromosomes, and is haploid (n)For humans, the haploid number is 23 (n = 23)Each set of 23 consists of 22 autosomes and a single sex chromosomeIn an unfertilized egg (ovum), the sex chromosome is XIn a sperm cell, the sex chromosome may be either X or Y

  • Fertilization is the union of gametes (the sperm and the egg)The fertilized egg is called a zygote and has one set of chromosomes from each parent The zygote produces somatic cells by mitosis and develops into an adultBehavior of Chromosome Sets in the Human Life Cycle

  • At sexual maturity, the ovaries and testes produce haploid gametesGametes are the only types of human cells produced by meiosis, rather than mitosisMeiosis results in one set of chromosomes in each gameteFertilization and meiosis alternate in sexual life cycles to maintain chromosome number

  • Figure 13.5KeyHaploid (n)Diploid (2n)Egg (n)Haploid gametes (n 23)Sperm (n)OvaryTestisMitosis and developmentDiploid zygote (2n 46)Multicellular diploid adults (2n 46)MEIOSISFERTILIZATION

  • The Variety of Sexual Life CyclesThe alternation of meiosis and fertilization is common to all organisms that reproduce sexuallyThe three main types of sexual life cycles differ in the timing of meiosis and fertilization

  • Gametes are the only haploid cells in animalsThey are produces by meiosis and undergo no further cell division before fertilization Gametes fuse to form a diploid zygote that divides by mitosis to develop into a multicellular organism

  • Figure 13.6KeyHaploid (n)Diploid (2n)GametesMEIOSISFERTILIZATIONZygoteMitosisDiploid multicellular organism(a) Animalsnnn2n2n2n2n2nnnnnnnnnnnMEIOSISMEIOSISFERTILIZATIONFERTILIZATIONMitosisMitosisMitosisMitosisMitosisGametesSporesGametesZygoteZygoteHaploid multi- cellular organism (gametophyte)Diploid multicellular organism (sporophyte)Haploid unicellular or multicellular organism(b) Plants and some algae(c) Most fungi and some protists

  • Figure 13.6aKeyHaploid (n)Diploid (2n)GametesMEIOSISFERTILIZATIONZygoteMitosisDiploid multicellular organism(a) Animalsn2nnn2n

  • Plants and some algae exhibit an alternation of generationsThis life cycle includes both a diploid and haploid multicellular stageThe diploid organism, called the sporophyte, makes haploid spores by meiosis

  • Each spore grows by mitosis into a haploid organism called a gametophyteA gametophyte makes haploid gametes by mitosisFertilization of gametes results in a diploid sporophyte

  • Figure 13.6b2n2nnMEIOSISFERTILIZATIONMitosisMitosisMitosisGametesSporesZygoteHaploid multi- cellular organism (gametophyte)Diploid multicellular organism (sporophyte)(b) Plants and some algaennnnHaploid (n)Diploid (2n)Key

  • In most fungi and some protists, the only diploid stage is the single-celled zygote; there is no multicellular diploid stageThe zygote produces haploid cells by meiosisEach haploid cell grows by mitosis into a haploid multicellular organismThe haploid adult produces gametes by mitosis

  • Figure 13.6cKeyHaploid (n)Diploid (2n)2nnnnnnMEIOSISFERTILIZATIONMitosisMitosisGametesZygoteHaploid unicellular or multicellular organism(c) Most fungi and some protists

  • Depending on the type of life cycle, either haploid or diploid cells can divide by mitosisHowever, only diploid cells can undergo meiosisIn all three life cycles, the halving and doubling of chromosomes contributes to genetic variation in offspring

  • Concept 13.3: Meiosis reduces the number of chromosome sets from diploid to haploidLike mitosis, meiosis is preceded by the replication of chromosomesMeiosis takes place in two sets of cell divisions, called meiosis I and meiosis IIThe two cell divisions result in four daughter cells, rather than the two daughter cells in mitosisEach daughter cell has only half as many chromosomes as the parent cell

  • The Stages of MeiosisAfter chromosomes duplicate, two divisions followMeiosis I (reductional division): homologs pair up and separate, resulting in two haploid daughter cells with replicated chromosomesMeiosis II (equational division) sister chromatids separateThe result is four haploid daughter cells with unreplicated chromosomes

  • Figure 13.7-1Pair of homologous chromosomes in diploid parent cellDuplicated pair of homologous chromosomesChromosomes duplicateSister chromatidsDiploid cell with duplicated chromosomesInterphase

  • Figure 13.7-2Pair of homologous chromosomes in diploid parent cellDuplicated pair of homologous chromosomesChromosomes duplicateSister chromatidsDiploid cell with duplicated chromosomesHomologous chromosomes separateHaploid cells with duplicated chromosomesMeiosis IInterphase

  • Figure 13.7-3Pair of homologous chromosomes in diploid parent cellDuplicated pair of homologous chromosomesChromosomes duplicateSister chromatidsDiploid cell with duplicated chromosomesHomologous chromosomes separateHaploid cells with duplicated chromosomesSister chromatids separateHaploid cells with unduplicated chromosomesInterphaseMeiosis IMeiosis II

  • Meiosis I is preceded by interphase, when the chromosomes are duplicated to form sister chromatidsThe sister chromatids are genetically identical and joined at the centromereThe single centrosome replicates, forming two centrosomes

    BioFlix: Meiosis

  • Division in meiosis I occurs in four phasesProphase IMetaphase IAnaphase ITelophase I and cytokinesis

  • Figure 13.8MEIOSIS I: Separates homologous chromosomesProphase IMetaphase IAnaphase ITelophase I and CytokinesisCentrosome (with centriole pair)Sister chromatidsChiasmataSpindleHomologous chromosomesFragments of nuclear envelopeDuplicated homologous chromosomes (red and blue) pair and exchange segments; 2n 6 in this example.Centromere (with kinetochore)Metaphase plateMicrotubule attached to kinetochoreChromosomes line up by homologous pairs.Sister chromatids remain attachedHomologous chromosomes separateEach pair of homologous chromosomes separates.Cleavage furrowTwo haploid cells form; each chromosome still consists of two sister chromatids.MEIOSIS I: Separates sister chromatidsProphase IIMetaphase IIAnaphase IITelophase II and CytokinesisSister chromatids separateHaploid daughter cells formingDuring another round of cell division, the sister chromatids finally separate; four haploid daughter cells result, containing unduplicated chromosomes.

  • Figure 13.8aProphase IMetaphase IAnaphase ITelophase I and C

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