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PsychologyThe scientific study of behavior and mental processes.Uses scientific research methods.Behavior includes all observable behavior.Mental processes include thoughts, feelings and dreams.

Example of the 5 Goals:You "observe" X doing YEx: 1 year old Charlie is crying. You "explain" this behavior as being a result of him needing the attention of his mother. (Infants cry when uncomfortable - i.e. hungry, need to poo etc). You predict this behavior (crying) will cease once the mother feeds Charlie his (milk, baby food) or changes his diaper. You can "control" his crying by having the mother promptly respond to his needs.

To describe, explain, predict, and control behavior and mental processesDescribe: tell what occurred Explain: tells the whyPredict: under what conditions is the behavior/event likely to occurControl: how is the principle applied or what change in condition is necessary to prevent unwanted occurrence or to bring about a desired outcome

Section #2What do psychologists do?

Who does what?

Psychologist: studies patients, tests disorders, talks and counsels

Psychiatrist : works inside a branch of medicine dealing with psychological disordersProvides medical (drug) treatment

http://www.diffen.com/difference/Psychiatrist_vs_Psychologist

http://psychology.about.com/od/careersinpsychology/tp/psychology-career-trends.htm

Section #3A History of Psychology

Todays Big QuestionHow can learning to know yourself help you understand the world and the people who live in it?

The Hippocratic Oath is an oath historically taken by physicians, physician assistants and other healthcare professionals swearing to practice medicine ethically and honestly.

Particularly in Europe during the Middle Ages, beatings were administered to the mentally ill who acted out as punishment for the disturbances their behavior caused and as a means of teaching individuals out of their illnesses.

The Middle Ages & Mental IllnessCauses of mental illness included: Supernatural causes such as demons and demonic possession. Witchcraft and sorcery. Mass hysteria. Melancholy and stress.

Treatments for mental illness included: Exorcism. Shaving the pattern of a cross in the head-hair. Believe that those suffering from mental illness could benefit from hearing mass. Drinking ice-cold water.

33Chapter 1Question: How has the study of psychology developed over time?PSYCHOLOGY DEVELOPED OVER TIMEBegan in ancient Greece Revived during the scientific advances of the 1500s, 1600s and 1700sContributions were made by modern psychologists such as William James, B.F. Skinner, and Sigmund FreudSection 3: A History of Psychology

HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON

PSYCHOLOGY PRINCIPLES IN PRACTICE StructuralismFunctionalism

StructuralismFunctionalismfirst school of psychology

breaking down mental processes

Wilhelm Wundt

too concerned with internal behavior (cant observe)

StructuralismFunctionalismfocused on the purpose of consciousness and behavior

emphasized individual differences

William James

Influenced the educational system

StructuralismFunctionalismfirst school of psychology

breaking down mental processes

Wilhelm Wundt

too concerned with internal behavior (cant observe) focused on the purpose of consciousness and behavior

emphasized individual differences

William James

Influenced the educational system

Structuralism vs. Functionalism

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SW6nm69Z_IE

PSYCHOLOGY DEVELOPED OVER TIME

William James Functionalism (observation and introspection What are the purposes of behavior and mental processes?)

John B. Watson Behaviorism (scientific study of observable behavior)

B.F. Skinner Reinforcement (influences behaviors)

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PQtDTdDr8vs

Gestalt Psychology Learning is active and purposefulProblem solving is accomplished by insight, not mechanical repetition.

Sigmund Freud Psychoanalysis (unconscious motives and internal conflicts)Freudian slip

Freudian slip

(in Freudian psychology) an accidental mistake in speech or writing that is thought to reveal a person's unconscious motives, wishes, or attitudes.

Section #4: 6 Perspectives on Psychology

Psychological PerspectivesMethod of classifying a collection of ideasAlso called schools of thoughtAlso called psychological approachesTo view behavior from a particular perspective

Cognitive PerspectiveFocus: On how people think and process informationBehavior is explained by how a person interprets the situation

Biological PerspectiveFocus: How our biological structures and substances underlie a given behavior, thought, or emotionBehavior is explained by brain chemistry, genetics, glands, etc.

Social-Cultural PerspectiveFocus: How thinking and behavior change depending on the setting or situationBehavior is explained by the influence of other people present

Behavioral PerspectiveFocus: How we learn through rewards, punishments, and observationBehavior is explained by previous learning

Humanistic PerspectiveFocus: How healthy people strive to reach their full potentialBehavior is explained as being motivated by satisfying needs (safety, hunger, thirst, etc.), with the goal of reaching ones full potential once basic needs are met.

Psychodynamic PerspectiveFocus: How behavior is affected by unconscious drives and conflictsBehavior is explained through unconscious motivation and unresolved inner conflicts from ones childhood.Modern version of psychoanalytic perspective.