cfl (compact fluorescent lamp) report

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COMPACT FLUORESCENT LAMP (CFL)

INTRODUCTION: Man has been aware of fluorescence for hundreds of years, but was unable to put it to practical use for lighting until Thomas Edison was granted a patent for the fluorescent lamp in 1907. The fluorescent lamp is an electric lamp consisting of a glass tube, coated on the inside with a fluorescent substance that gives off light when acted upon by electricity. Fluorescent lamps and incandescent lamps are the two major sources of electric light today. However, fluorescent lamps produce 3.5 times as much light per watt, have much longer lives and often cost less than the corresponding models of incandescent lamps. Consequently, fluorescent lamps are commonly used in offices, factories, classrooms, restaurants, and libraries, as well as a number of other public buildings. Typical fluorescent lamps consist of a long glass tube that seals the inner components from atmosphere. These inner components include two electrodes that emit a flow of electrons; mercury vapor, which is the source of ultraviolet radiation; argon gas, which helps in starting the lamp, and of course fluorescent power coating on the inner surface of the tube; and compact energy saving fluorescent lamp contains ballast. Manufactures of light bulbs are constantly trying to lower the costs of production. As a leading manufacturer of fluorescent lamps, Taiwan has played an important role in helping to develop the technology and automated machinery necessary to keep those products costs down. Consequently, the manufacturers in Taiwan can help entrepreneurs by supplying them with the machinery and technology needed to produce more economical and efficient fluorescent light bulbs. The production of fluorescent lamps is done in four stages. Most of the work is done by automatic machinery, so only a minimal number of workers are required. The four stages of production are:

RAW MATERIAL:1. Low Sodium Lead free glass tube2. Exhaust Tube3. Lead in wire4. Filament5. Phosphorus: Three band phosphors; AT, Y, EU6. Emittor (Oxide): Carbonate suspension7. Cane glass for beads mount8. Main Amalgam 2.300.10 mm9. Sub Amalgam net10. Mercury 99.999%11. Argon gas 99.999%12. Base cement (per customers standard)13. Base

MANUFACTURING PROCESS:(1) Mount Making Three machines are used to make mounts. This machinery can be used to make stems for many types of lamps:a. Flare Making Machine: A specially designed machine with 12 heads located around the edge of turntable flanges tubes of glass into flares. The flare is separated from the glass / tubing by a flame which polishes the surface of the glass as it cuts it.

b. Stem Making Machine: Exhaust tubes and lead-in wires from presorted hoppers are, along with the flares, fed into the stem making machine, which automatically forms the stems.

c. Mounting Machine: The stems are forwarded to the mounting machine, where oxidized, tungsten wire filaments are attached, thus completing the mount making process.

(2) Glass Tube Preparation1. Glass tubes of the appropriate length are placed in the washing and coating machine. This machine uses hot water and hot air to wash and dry the glass tubes before the inner walls of the tubes are coated with fluorescent powder.2. After being coated with fluorescent powder the tubes are automatically unloaded onto a roller conveyor which transports them through an oven and the through a cooling chamber. As the tubes pass through the oven, the fluorescent coating is baked on to the tubes.3. As they pass through the cooling chamber, two end-cleaning machines automatically brush the fluorescent coating from the ends of the tubes. The conveyor then transports the tubes to the sealing machine for final assembly.

(3) Base Preparationa. The required portions of the ingredients needed to make the sealing compound are mixed together in a cement-mixing machine.b. The sealing compound is then dispensed into the bases of the lamps by an automatic filling machine. The bases are then forwarded to the basing machine for final assembly.

(4) AssemblyThe mounts, glass tubes, and the cement filled bases are then assembled into finished products.PROCESS FLOW CHART:

MANUFACTURING MACHINES:1. Baking Machine2. Coating Machine3. End Cleaning Machine4. Aging Machine5. Head Base Mounting Machine6. FTL Exhausting Machine7. FTL Mounting Machine8. FTL Sealing Machine9. Mounting Machine10. Stem Machine11. Washing Machine

Baking Machine

Coating Machine

End Cleaning Machine

Aging Machine

Head Base Mouting Machine

FTL Exhausting Machine

FTL Mounting MachineFTL Sealing Machine

Mounting Machine

Stem Machine

Washing Machine

MARKET POTENTIAL: The average rated life of a CFL is between 8 and 15 times that of incandescent. CFLs typically have a rated life-span of between 6,000 and 15,000 hours, whereas incandescent lamps are usually manufactured to have a lifespan of 750 hours or 1,000 hours. For a given light output, CFLs use 20 to 33 percent of the power of equivalent incandescent lamps. Electrical power equivalents for differing lampsCompact Fluorescent (W) Incandescent (W) Minimum light output (lumens) 9-13 40 450 13-15 60 800 18-25 75 1,100 23-30 100 1,600 30-52 150 2,600

APPLICATIONS:1. Decorative applications2. Speciality lightings 3. Dimmable applications4. Enclosed fixtures5. Outdoor lightings6. Energy star approved fixtures7. Small fixtures8. Flashing applications

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