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  • 1. The Age of Early European Explorations & Conquests

2. Earlier Explorations

  • Islam & the Spice TradeMalacca (Melaka)
  • A New PlayerEurope
    • Nicolo, Maffeo, & Marco Polo, 1271
    • Expansion becomes a state enterprisemonarchs had the authority & the resources.
    • Better seaworthy ships.
  • Chinese Admiral Zheng He & the Ming Treasure Fleet

3. Admiral Zheng He 1371-1435

    • Each ship was 400 long and 160 wide!

4. Motives for European Exploration

  • Crusadesby-pass intermediaries to get to Asia.
  • Renaissancecuriosity about other lands and peoples.
  • Reformationrefugees & missionaries.
  • Monarchs seeking new sources of revenue.
  • Technological advances.
  • Fame and fortune.

5. New Maritime Technologies

    • Hartman Astrolabe (1532)
    • Better Maps [Portulan]
    • Sextant
    • Mariners Compass

6. New Weapons Technology 7. Prince Henry, the Navigator

    • School for Navigation, 1419

8. Museum of Navigation in Lisbon 9. Portuguese Maritime Empire

  • Exploring the west coast of Africa.
  • Bartolome Dias, 1488.
  • Vasco da Gama, 1498.
    • Calicut.
  • Admiral Alfonso de Albuquerque (Goa, 1510; Malacca, 1511).

10. Zheng Hes Voyages

    • In 1498, Da Gama reached Calcutta, Chinas favorite port!

11. Christofo Colon[1451-1506] 12. Columbus Four Voyages 13. Race to the Americas

  • John Cabot,1500
  • Amerigo Vespucci,

14. Ferdinand Magellan & the First Circumnavigation of the World: Early 16 c 15. Atlantic Explorations Looking for El Dorado 16. Fernando Cortez The First Spanish Conquests: The Aztecs Montezuma II vs. 17. Francisco Pizarro The First Spanish Conquests: The Incas Atahualpa vs. 18. Slaves Working in aBrazilian Sugar Mill 19. The Columbian Exchange

  • Squash
  • Avocado
  • Peppers
  • Sweet Potatoes
  • Turkey
  • Pumpkin
  • Tobacco
  • Quinine
  • Cocoa
  • Pineapple
  • Cassava
  • POTATO
  • Peanut
  • TOMATO
  • Vanilla
  • MAIZE
  • Syphilis
  • Olive
  • COFFEE BEAN
  • Banana
  • Rice
  • Onion
  • Turnip
  • Honeybee
  • Barley
  • Grape
  • Peach
  • SUGAR CANE
  • Oats
  • Citrus Fruits
  • Pear
  • Wheat
  • HORSE
  • Cattle
  • Sheep
  • Pigs
  • Smallpox
  • Flu
  • Typhus
  • Measles
  • Malaria
  • Diptheria
  • Whooping Cough
  • Trinkets
  • Liquor
  • GUNS

20. Cycle of Conquest & Colonization Explorers Conquistadores Missionaries Permanent Settlers Official European Colony! 21. Mercantilism

  • Set of principals that dominated economic thought in the 17 thcentury.
  • The prosperity of a nation depended on a large supply of bullion, or gold and silver.
  • Nations tried to have a balance of trade- which is the difference in value between what a nation imports and what it exports over time.

22. Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade 23. The Slave Trade

  • Existed in Africa before the coming of the Europeans.
  • Portuguese replaced European slaves with Africans.
    • Sugar cane & sugar plantations.
    • First boatload of African slaves brought by the Spanish in 1518.
    • 275,000 enslaved Africans exported to other countries.
  • Between 16 c& 19 c , about 10 million Africans shipped to the Americas.

24. TRIANGULAR TRADE Connected Europe, Africa and Asia and the Americas. 25. Affects of African Slave Trade

  • Devastating affect on some African states.
  • The case ofBeninin West Africa is a good example.
  • A brilliant and creative society in the 16 thcentury became a corrupt and brutal place after the slave trade.
  • People of Benin lost faith in their gods, their art deteriorated, and human sacrifice was common.

26. Slave Ship Middle Passage 27. Middle Passage Coffin Position Below Deck 28. African Captives Thrown Overboard Sharks followed the slave ships! 29. Administration of the Spanish Empire in the New World

  • Encomiendaor forcedlabor.
  • Council ofthe Indies.
    • Viceroy.
    • New Spain and Peru.
  • Papal agreement.

30. The Influence of the Colonial Catholic Church Guadalajara Cathedral Our Lady of Guadalupe Spanish Mission 31. The Treaty of Tordesillas, 1494 &The Popes Line of Demarcation(West for Spain and East for Portugal) 32. Father Bartolome de Las Casas

  • New Laws1542

33. New Colonial Rivals 34. Impact of European Expansion

  • Native populations ravaged by disease.
  • Influx of gold, and especially silver, into Europe created an inflationary economic climate. [ Price Revolution ]
  • New products introduced across the continents [Columbian Exchange].
  • Deepened colonial rivalries.