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Historic Cemeteries Preservation Guide

Michigan

Gregg G. King with Susan Kosky, Kathleen Glynn & Gladys SaborioSupported by

Michigan Historic Cemetery Preservation Manual

GREGG G. KINGwith

SUSAN KOSKY K AT H L E E N G LY N N GLADYS SABORIO

S U P P O R T E D B Y:

Michigan State Historic Preservation Office and The Charter Township of Canton Historic District Commission and Department of Leisure Services

Published with the assistance of Charter Township of Canton Copyright by Charter Township of Canton 2004 All rights reserved. This book may not be reproduced, in whole or in part, excluding forms, without written permission from the above named publisher. Cover designed by RaeChell Garrett and Gregg G. King Printed in the United States of America by McNaughton and Gunn Inc.

ISBN 0-9755474-0-2

Publishers Cataloging -in- Publication King, Gregg Michigan historic cemeteries preservation guide / Gregg King. p.cm. Includes biographical references. ISBN 0-9755474-0-2 I. CemeteriesMichiganConservation and restoration Handbooks, manuals, etc. 2. Historic preservation MichiganHandbooks, manuals, etc. 3. Michigan AntiquitiesCollections and preservation Handbooks, manuals, etc. I. Title F567.K56 2004 363.69 QBI04-200244

The activity that is the subject of this project has been financed in part with Federal funds from the National Parks Service, U.S. Department of the Interior, through the Michigan Department of History, Arts and Libraries. However, the contents and opinions herein do not necessarily reflect the views or policies of the Department of the Interior or the Department of History, Arts and Libraries, nor does the mention of trade names or commercial products herein constitute endorsement or recommendation by the Department of the Interior or the Michigan Department of History, Arts and Libraries.

This program receives Federal financial assistance for identification and protection of historic properties. Under Title VI of the Civil Rights Acts of 1964, Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973, and the Age Discrimination Act of 1975, as amended, the U.S. Department of the Interior prohibits discrimination on the basis of race, color, national origin, disability, or age in its federally assisted programs. Michigan law prohibits discrimination on the basis of religion, race, color, national origin, age, sex, marital status or disability. If you believe that you have been discriminated against in any program, activity, or facilities described above, or if you desire further information, please write to: Office of Equal Opportunity National Park Service 1849 C Street, NW Washington, DC 20240

Acknowledgements

he authors wish to acknowledge those people and organizations without whom this manual could not have been written. First we wish to gratefully acknowledge the Township Board of the Charter Township of Canton for having the vision to realize the need for this manual and for providing funding. We would like to sincerely thank the Canton Township Historic District Commission for its involvement and support. Additionally we would like to thank the management of the Canton Township Leisure Services Department, Parks Division, specifically Ann Conklin, Brad Sharp and Abe Vinitski for their financial support and willingness to allow this publication to evolve. Their commitment to historic cemetery preservation is commendable and thoroughly appreciated. To the Canton Community Resources staff, a special thank you for their support of this work and for running hundreds of sheets of copy. For providing funding and for another great job of editing, thank you to the Michigan State Historic Preservation Office. A special thanks to Robert Christensen whose vast knowledge of history and preservation is extraordinary. Thanks to Amy Arnold for her guidance and administrative ability and for fielding numerous phone calls. Thank you too to Laura Ashlee, Robbert McKay, and others who assisted in editing. The Chicora Foundation and the Association for Gravestone Studies are among the historic cemetery related organizations that have answered our many questions and offered their expertise. We would also like to extend a special thank you to Caryl Arnet for sharing her familys history and providing us with a look at the stone carving industry from its perspective.

T

Thank you to Scott Kunst, a valued friend as well as an expert on historic landscapes, for his assistance on the landscape section. We are indebted to Phyllis Rickard, of the Lenawee County Library, for her help in researching the iron fence companies of Adrian, Michigan; and to Elaine Masters, Lodi Township clerk, for offering advice on her townships management of its historic cemeteries. A special thanks, to Roger Glynn for his technical expertise in editing the monument repairs section; Dennis Noll for providing several drawings for this manual; and to RaeChell Garrett for the cover design of the manual. And of course much appreciation goes to our spouses and families for their support, forbearance, and for keeping our households running smoothly throughout the project.

Table of Contents

PREFACE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 INTRODUCTION. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Chapter 1 ORGANIZING EFFORTS Establish ownership . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 Know the laws and regulations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 Awareness and team building . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 Get permission . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 Conduct a reconnaissance survey . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 Prepare an action plan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 Establish funding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 The work force . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 Listing in the National Register of Historic Places . . . . . . . 23 SURVEY METHODOLOGY AND DOCUMENTATION Overview of cemetery development . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 Survey and documentation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 Documenting the vegetation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 Evaluation of the monument . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 Quick field guide to monument types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 Documenting the headstone . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 Measuring monuments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 Historic fencing and enclosures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 Typical fence designs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 Other buildings and structures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 Mapping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 Identifying voids and vacant spaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 Photography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58

Chapter 2

ORGANIZING EFFORTS

1

Chapter 3

CONSERVATION OF THE CEMETERY Landscape features. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62 Metalwork . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 Identifying monument and headstone material . . . . . . . . . . . . 74 Cleaning headstones and monuments. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79 Cleaning agents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86 Repairing headstones and monuments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90 Common repairs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92 Snapped markers concealed repairs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104 Masonry repairs and repointing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118 Existing repairs, special braces, and girdling . . . . . . . . . . . . 120 Old repair methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121 Special repairs table and box tombs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124 MANAGEMENT AND MAINTENANCE Developing a cemetery ordinance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 127 Planning for maintenance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129 Soil and turf management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129 Buildings, other structures, and features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 140 THE CEMETERY AS A CULTURAL ARTIFACT Multi-purpose use of cemeteries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 145 Gravestone rubbing dont . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 150 APPENDIX . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 155

Chapter 4

Chapter 5

P H O T O G R A P H A N D I L L U S T R AT I O N C R E D I T S

All photographs Page 36 Page 41 Pages 77, 78 Page 146

were taken by Gregg G. King with the exception of the following: Zinc Statue, Gladys Saborio Photo courtesy of Arnets, Beckers and Burrells Tablet markers, Kathleen Glynn The Saline Reporter

All illustrations were drawn by Dennis Noll with the exception of the following: Pages 38, 50 Monument Types and Fence Designs, Chicora Foundation Pages 43 Original drawings from Chicora Foundation, adapted by Dennis Noll Page 54 Mapping, Ontario Ministry of Citizenship, Culture and Recreation Page 59 Original drawings from The Association for Gravestone Studies, adapted by Dennis Noll Page 96 Original drawings from The Association for Gravestone Studies and Ontario Ministry of Citizenship, Culture and Recreation, adapted by Dennis Noll Page 109 Pinning, Oregon Historic Ceme

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