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CELL STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION CELL STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION LO: Be able to describe the LO: Be able to describe the differences between differences between prokaryotic and eukaryotic prokaryotic and eukaryotic ultra structure ultra structure

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Page 1: CELL STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION LO: Be able to describe the differences between prokaryotic and eukaryotic ultra structure

CELL STRUCTURE AND CELL STRUCTURE AND FUNCTIONFUNCTION

LO: Be able to describe the LO: Be able to describe the differences between prokaryotic differences between prokaryotic and eukaryotic ultra structureand eukaryotic ultra structure

Page 2: CELL STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION LO: Be able to describe the differences between prokaryotic and eukaryotic ultra structure

The Cell• The cell is the smallest unit of life

that can carry out life processes.

Page 3: CELL STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION LO: Be able to describe the differences between prokaryotic and eukaryotic ultra structure

Section 2 Introduction to CellsChapter 4

Cellular Organization

Page 4: CELL STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION LO: Be able to describe the differences between prokaryotic and eukaryotic ultra structure

Prokaryotic Cell• Prokaryotic-

cells that do not have a nucleus and internal membrane-bound structures– Most unicellular

organisms are prokaryotes.

– Bacteria

Page 5: CELL STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION LO: Be able to describe the differences between prokaryotic and eukaryotic ultra structure

Eukaryotic Cell• Eukaryotic-Cells

that do have a nucleus and internal membrane-bound structures.– Most multicellular

organisms are eukaryotes.

– Yeast and algae (unicellular, eukaryotes)

– Plant and animal

Page 6: CELL STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION LO: Be able to describe the differences between prokaryotic and eukaryotic ultra structure

• Cytoplasm – Gel like material that protects, supports and suspends organelles.

Features Common to Cells:

All cells have either DNA or RNA or both.

Page 7: CELL STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION LO: Be able to describe the differences between prokaryotic and eukaryotic ultra structure

Features Common to Cells:

• Cell membrane – Semi-permeable allows some materials in and keeps others out. This helps to maintain cellular homeostasis.

Page 8: CELL STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION LO: Be able to describe the differences between prokaryotic and eukaryotic ultra structure

Chapter 4Parts of the Cell

Page 9: CELL STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION LO: Be able to describe the differences between prokaryotic and eukaryotic ultra structure

Nucleus• “Command center”• Surrounded by a

nuclear envelope• Contains genetic

material: – chromatin– chromosomes

• Nucleolus-makes ribosomes– Ribosomes-site

where proteins are made

• Can be found floating in the cytoplasm or attached to endoplasmic reticulum

Page 10: CELL STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION LO: Be able to describe the differences between prokaryotic and eukaryotic ultra structure

Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER)

• Series of folded membranes allow a large amount of work to be done in a small amount of space

• Transportation unit for the cell

• Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum (RER)– Ribosomes attached– Protein synthesis

• Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum (SER)– Produce and

store lipids

Page 11: CELL STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION LO: Be able to describe the differences between prokaryotic and eukaryotic ultra structure

Golgi ApparatusVesicles

• Flattened tubular membranes

• Packaging plant• Modify, sort,

package, and transport proteins throughout the cell

Page 12: CELL STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION LO: Be able to describe the differences between prokaryotic and eukaryotic ultra structure

VACUOLES• Storage sacs

Temporary storage of materials– Store food,

enzymes, waste

• Plant cells have one large vacuole.

• Animal cells have many small vesicles.

Page 13: CELL STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION LO: Be able to describe the differences between prokaryotic and eukaryotic ultra structure

LYSOSOMES• Contain digestive

enzymes• Digest excess or

worn organelles, food particles, viruses, and bacteria

• Surrounded by membrane that prevents it from destroying the cell

• Can burst causing cell death

Page 14: CELL STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION LO: Be able to describe the differences between prokaryotic and eukaryotic ultra structure

Chapter 4Mitochondria• Cellular respiration -converts food

into energy• Cell “Powerhouse”• Number of mitochondria depends upon the

function of the cell– Ex: muscles cells have more mitochondria than

fat cells

Page 15: CELL STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION LO: Be able to describe the differences between prokaryotic and eukaryotic ultra structure

Centriole

• Help with cell reproduction

• Only found in animal cells

Page 16: CELL STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION LO: Be able to describe the differences between prokaryotic and eukaryotic ultra structure

Plastids – Color pigments of cells

• Examples:– Chloroplast – Located in plant cells, some

bacteria, and protists.• Capture light energy to produce and store food• Contain chlorophyll-green pigment that traps

light energy

Page 17: CELL STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION LO: Be able to describe the differences between prokaryotic and eukaryotic ultra structure

• Cytoskeleton – tiny fibers that give structure and support to the cell.– Microfilament- thin

and tubular…support the cell membrane.

– Microtubule- thick and tubular also branched. Act as “rails” on which materials move through the cell.

Features Common to Cells:

Page 18: CELL STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION LO: Be able to describe the differences between prokaryotic and eukaryotic ultra structure

Cilia and Flagella• Aid in movement

and feeding• Composed of

microtubules• Cilia-short,

numerous hair-like projections that move in a wavelike motion

• Flagella-long, whip-like projections

Page 19: CELL STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION LO: Be able to describe the differences between prokaryotic and eukaryotic ultra structure

Cell wall• Rigid outer

covering PLANT CELLS

• Located outside the cell membrane

• Provides support and protection

• Helps produce turgor pressure

Page 20: CELL STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION LO: Be able to describe the differences between prokaryotic and eukaryotic ultra structure

Animal Cell

Plant Cell

Page 21: CELL STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION LO: Be able to describe the differences between prokaryotic and eukaryotic ultra structure

Plant cell vs. Animal Cell

Page 22: CELL STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION LO: Be able to describe the differences between prokaryotic and eukaryotic ultra structure

Plant vs Animal cells• Animal Cell vs. Plant cell

– Animal Cell • DO contain centrioles. • DO NOT contain a cell wall or plastids.

– Plant Cell • DO contain a cell wall, plastids, and a

large central vacuole.

• DO NOT contain centrioles