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CCTV Surveillance


Closed-circuit television(CCTV) is the use ofvideo camerasto transmit a signal to a specific place, on a limited set of monitors.It differs frombroadcast televisionin that the signal is not openly transmitted, though it may employ point to point (P2P), point to multipoint, or mesh wireless links. Though almost all video cameras fit this definition, the term is most often applied to those used forsurveillancein areas that may need monitoring such as banks, casinos, airports, military installations, and convenience stores.


Dome CCTV camerasSurveillance cameras on a cornerIn industrial plants, CCTV equipment may be used to observe parts of a process from a central control room, for example when the environment is not suitable for humans. CCTV systems may operate continuously or only as required to monitor a particular event. A more advanced form of CCTV, utilizingDigital Video Recorders(DVRs), provides recording for possibly many years, with a variety of quality and performance options and extra features (such as motion-detection and email alerts). More recently, decentralized IP-based CCTV cameras, some equipped with megapixel sensors, support recording directly tonetwork-attached storagedevices, or internal flash for completely stand-alone operation.

DISPLAY MONITERCCTV Cameras :CCTV systems have become extremely popular over the last few decades as the technology has improved and become more affordable. The majority of CCTV cameras in use today are usually for surveillance and security purposes. CCTV systems can be found in almost every bank, casino, mall, and large department store. In fact, CCTV systems have become so affordable, most smaller mom and pop stores also have CCTV systems in them for security purposes.

TYPE OF CCTVThere are many types of CCTV cameras. They can be categorized by the types of images they are able to capture, the amount of frames they can take per minute, the type of connection to the monitor or video recording device, whether they are able to move position, and special functions they can provide.Types of Images: CCTV cameras generally take both black and white or color video images. In addition, many CCTV cameras even have night vision capabilities that allow a CCTV camera to view and record low light images using special technology.Frames per Second: Frames per second is the amount of full frames that a video camera captures and sends to a recording device or monitor per second. While most CCTV camera systems easily capture 30 or more frames per second, the amount of video tape or digital storage would be enormous to record every moment of everyday. For most stores, speeds of 1 to 6 frames per second are more than enough to catch and record a perpetrator committing a crime.Pan Tilt Zoom Cameras: These types of CCTV cameras allow a person controlling the surveillance of an area to move the camera remotely, usually with an RF or wired controller. Most movable cameras allow the person monitoring it to move the camera from right to left , up and down.

Cameras with Special Accessories: Certain CCTV cameras have special functions that are made for specialty uses. For instance, there are extremely small surveillance cameras that are used for spying (Nanny Cams), night viewing, are vandal resistant, and that are specifically made for indoor or outdoor uses.

Wired Vs. Wireless ConnectionThere are two main types of connections for CCTV cameras: a fixed cable or a wireless connection.Fixed Cable ConnectionFixed cable connection means that the camera is physically connected to the monitor or recording device via a cable. Coaxial cables that are similar to normal home TV cables are usually used. Lengths come in 25, 35, 50, 100, or 500 feet. As the distance increases, signal quality decreases. For distances longer than 100 or 200 feet, purchase higher quality coaxial cables such as RG59 coaxial cable for distances up to 600 feet and for distances more than 600 feet, but less than 2,000 feet, purchase CAT5 cable.

Wireless ConnectionMost wireless CCTV cameras use the 2.4 Gigahertz frequencies to transmit their video images to a monitor or DVR (digital video recorder). Usually, frequencies can be slightly changed to have more than one group of cameras in a specific space. Wireless CCTV cameras that use this frequency can easily transmit through most walls and obstacles. However, each individual location will have its own operating limits. Expect most wireless CCTV cameras to send data to a range of about 200 feet. However, many will more likely work well when transmitting less than 150 feet. A clear line of sight transmission will always work best.Obviously a wireless connection allows greater freedom to place CCTV cameras almost anywhere. While wireless CCTV cameras transmit their video images to a digital video recorder or monitor, many of these types of cameras must be plugged into an electrical outlet. There are, however, some CCTV cameras that are battery operated.

Tape vs. Digital Video RecordersThere are two main ways to record video images that CCTV cameras capture. They are analog tape and digital video recorders. Most analog video recorders use VCR tapes or standard VCRs to record the images or special security time-lapse VCRs to record images for a longer period of time..VCR Tape RecorderA tape recorder such as a security-time lapse VCR can record CCTV camera images in either black and white or color for 2,4, 6, 8, all the way up to 960 hours, which is 40 complete days. The determining factor is how many frames per second users intend to record and how many cameras are hooked up to the VCR for recording. For instance, if a user records 30 frames per second (real time video), he/she will only be able to get a few hours of video captured on the recorder. If users record one frame per second or less, they can record for dozens of hours before the video tape is full. VCRs are very practical, very reliable, and extremely affordable.

Digital Video RecordersThere are two types of DVRs (Digital Video Recorders). They are either stand alone devices or hard drives that are connected to a computer system. DVRs work similar to VCRs, but the images they capture from the CCTV camera is digital. The amount of digital images captured on a DVR is determined by a few factors including the frames per second recorded, the amount of cameras hooked up to the DVR device, the resolution that the DVR saves the images at, and the video compression used (e.g. MPEG4). For a common set up, where 4 cameras are shooting at 30 fps and an image resolution of 320 X 240 is being used, each camera only records when motion is on, and MPEG4 compression is used, users should be able fill up a 20 to 25 GB hard drive in about 80 hours.

Main DVR InterfaceWhat is Digital and Compressed Video

Digital refers to the process of digitizing or sampling the CCTV analogvideo to transform an analog signal to a digital formatDigital (uncompressed) 8-10bit video used by some CCTV fibertransceivers this is not IP videoCompressed (or encoded) video removes some of the redundantinformation in order to reduce data ratesLossless removes redundant information without affecting picture quality 45-90MB data rateLossy results in some reduction in video quality (resolution, frame rate,color depth) over uncompressed image 56kbps to 10MBpsHow Does Digital CCTV Work?

Digital CCTVis a relatively new technology that has proclaimed itself to be the next level in security monitoring systems. Recent advances in technology over the past couple of years has made digital CCTV available and affordable for virtually anyone to implement on their premises.Versatile in design, digital CCTV operates across a standard ethernet, so no extra wiring is required in the majority of situations. Once installed on your premises, your digital CCTV network can be added to quickly and easily simply by installing newCCTV camerasand adding these to your CCTV software package.Once your network of CCTV cameras have been installed on your site, you are able to analyse both live and historic event-based video clips through your PC monitor using theCCTV softwaresupplied with your system.Digital CCTV is unique in that it will only record images when movement is detected. This ultimately means that you will only have CCTV footage of activity: when something occurs across the camera's field of view.The quality of the footage generated by your digital CCTV cameras means thatevidence qualityimages are generated, which can be used in a court of law to prosecute perpetrators. Analogue CCTV systems invariably are unable to do this.The integrational capabilities ofdigital CCTVmean that in addition to working extremely well as a standalone security system, it can also be connected to other installed security equipment.

What are IP cameras?

A growing branch in CCTV isinternet protocolcameras (IP cameras).IP camerasuse theInternet Protocol(IP) used by mostLocal Area Networks(LANs) to transmit video across data networks in digital form. IP can optionally be transmitted across the public internet, allowing users to view their camera(s) through any internet connection available through a computer or a3Gphone. For professional or public infrastructure security applications, IP video is restricted to within a private network orVPNEasy access with IP cameras IP systems designed for large scale jobs school, military, multiple locations. Greater flexibility, in