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© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential Presentation_I D 1 Chapter 4: Network Access Introduction to Networks

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ITE PC v4.0 Chapter 1

Chapter 4:Network AccessIntroduction to Networks

2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco ConfidentialPresentation_ID#

Presentation_ID# 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco Confidential1Cisco Networking Academy programIntroduction to NetworksChapter 4: Network Access

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Chapter 4: ObjectivesStudents will be able to:Explain how physical layer protocols and services support communications across data networks.Build a simple network using the appropriate.Explain the role of the data link layer in supporting communications across data networks.Compare media access control techniques and logical topologies used in networks.

Presentation_ID# 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco Confidential2

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Chapter 44.1 Physical Layer Protocols4.2 Network Media4.3 Data Link Layer Protocols4.4 Media Access Control4.5 Summary

Presentation_ID# 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco Confidential3Chapter 4 Sections

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Getting it ConnectedConnecting to the Network

Presentation_ID# 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco Confidential4Section 4.1.1.1

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Getting it ConnectedConnecting to the Network

Presentation_ID# 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco Confidential5Section 4.1.1.1

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Getting it ConnectedNetwork Interface CardsConnecting to the Wireless LAN with a Range Extender

Presentation_ID# 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco Confidential6Section 4.1.1.2

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Purpose of the Physical LayerThe Physical Layer

Presentation_ID# 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco Confidential7Section 4.1.2.1

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Purpose of the Physical LayerPhysical Layer Media

Presentation_ID# 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco Confidential8Section 4.1.2.2

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Purpose of the Physical LayerPhysical Layer StandardsStandard organizationNetworking Standards ISOISO 8877: Officially adopted the RJ connectors (e.g., RJ-11, RJ-45)ISO 11801: Network cabling standard similar to EIA/TIA 568.EIA/TIATIA-568-C: Telecommunications cabling standards, used by nearly all voice, video and data networks.TIA-569-B: Commercial Building Standards for Telecommunications Pathways and SpacesTIA-598-C: Fiber optic color codingTIA-942: Telecommunications Infrastructure Standard for Data CentersANSI568-C: RJ-45 pinouts. Co-developed with EIA/TIAITU-TG.992: ADSLIEEE802.3: Ethernet802.11: Wireless LAN (WLAN) & Mesh (Wi-Fi certification)802.15: Bluetooth

Presentation_ID# 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco Confidential9Section 4.1.2.3

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Fundamental Principles of Layer 1Physical Layer Fundamental PrinciplesMediaPhysical ComponentsFrame Encoding TechniqueSignalling MethodCopper cableUTPCoaxialConnectorsNICsPortsInterfacesManchester EncodingNon-Return to Zero (NRZ) techniques4B/5B codes are used with Multi-Level Transition Level 3 (MLT-3) signaling8B/10BPAM5Changes in the electromagnetic fieldIntensity of the electromagnetic field Phase of the electromagnetic waveFiber Optic cableSingle-mode FiberMultimode FiberConnectorsNICsInterfacesLasers and LEDsPhotoreceptorsPulses of lightWavelength multiplexing using different colorsA pulse equals 1.No pulse is 0. Wireless mediaAccess PointsNICsRadioAntennae DSSS (direct-sequence spread-spectrum)OFDM (orthogonal frequency division multiplexing)Radio waves

Presentation_ID# 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco Confidential10Section 4.1.3.1

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Fundamental Principles of Layer 1Bandwidth

Presentation_ID# 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco Confidential11Section 4.1.3.2

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Fundamental Principles of Layer 1Throughput

Presentation_ID# 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco Confidential12Section 4.1.3.3

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Fundamental Principles of Layer 1Types of Physical Media

Presentation_ID# 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco Confidential13Section 4.1.3.4

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Network MediaCopper Cabling

Presentation_ID# 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco Confidential14Section 4.2.1

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Copper CablingCharacteristics of Copper Media

Presentation_ID# 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco Confidential15Section 4.2.1.1

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Copper CablingCopper Media

Shielded Twisted Pair (STP) cable

Unshielded Twisted Pair (UTP) cable

Coaxial cable

Presentation_ID# 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco Confidential16Section 4.2.1.2

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Copper CablingUnshielded Twisted-Pair (UTP) Cable

Presentation_ID# 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco Confidential17Section 4.2.1.3

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Copper CablingShielded Twisted-Pair (STP) Cable

Foil ShieldsBraided or Foil Shield

Presentation_ID# 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco Confidential18Section 4.2.1.4

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Copper CablingCoaxial Cable

Presentation_ID# 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco Confidential19Section 4.2.1.5

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Copper CablingCooper Media Safety

Presentation_ID# 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco Confidential20Section 4.2.1.6

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UTP CablingProperties of UTP Cabling

Presentation_ID# 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco Confidential21Section 4.2.2.1

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UTP CablingUTP Cabling Standards

Presentation_ID# 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco Confidential22Section 4.2.2.2

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UTP CablingUTP Connectors

Presentation_ID# 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco Confidential23Section 4.2.2.3

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UTP CablingTypes of UTP Cable

Presentation_ID# 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco Confidential24Section 4.2.2.4

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UTP CablingTesting UTP Cables

Presentation_ID# 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco Confidential25Section 4.2.2.5

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UTP CablingTesting UTP Cables

Presentation_ID# 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco Confidential26Section 9.4.2.6

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Fiber Optic CablingProperties of Fiber Optic Cabling

Presentation_ID# 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco Confidential27Section 4.2.3.1

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Fiber Optic CablingFiber Media Cable Design

Presentation_ID# 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco Confidential28Section 4.2.3.2

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Fiber Optic CablingTypes of Fiber Media

Presentation_ID# 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco Confidential29Section 4.2.3.3

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Fiber Optic CablingNetwork Fiber Connectors

Presentation_ID# 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco Confidential30Section 4.2.3.4

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Fiber Optic CablingTesting Fiber Cables

Presentation_ID# 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco Confidential31Section 4.2.3.5

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Fiber Optic CablingFiber versus CopperImplementation issuesCopper mediaFibre-opticBandwidth supported10 Mbps 10 Gbps10 Mbps 100 GbpsDistanceRelatively short(1 100 meters)Relatively High(1 100,000 meters)Immunity to EMI and RFILowHigh(Completely immune)Immunity to electrical hazardsLowHigh(Completely immune)Media and connector costsLowestHighestInstallation skills requiredLowestHighestSafety precautionsLowestHighest

Presentation_ID# 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco Confidential32Section 4.2.3.6

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Wireless MediaProperties of Wireless Media

Presentation_ID# 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco Confidential33Section 4.2.4.1

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IEEE 802.11 standardsCommonly referred to as Wi-Fi.Uses CSMA/CAVariations include:802.11a: 54 Mbps, 5 GHz802.11b: 11 Mbps, 2.4 GHz802.11g: 54 Mbps, 2.4 GHz802.11n: 600 Mbps, 2.4 and 5 GHz802.11ac: 1 Gbps, 5 GHz802.11ad: 7 Gbps, 2.4 GHz, 5 GHz, and 60 GHzIEEE 802.15 standardSupports speeds up to 3 MbpsProvides device pairing over distances from 1 to 100 meters.IEEE 802.16 standardProvides speeds up to 1 GbpsUses a point-to-multipoint topology to provide wireless broadband access.

Wireless MediaTypes of Wireless Media

Presentation_ID# 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco Confidential34Section 4.2.4.2

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Wireless MediaWireless LANCisco Linksys EA6500 802.11ac wireless router

Presentation_ID# 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco Confidential35Section 4.2.4.3

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Wireless Media802.11 Wi-Fi StandardsStandardMaximum SpeedFrequencyBackwards compatible802.11a54 Mbps5 GHzNo802.11b11 Mbps2.4 GHzNo802.11g54 Mbps2.4 GHz802.11b802.11n600 Mbps2.4 GHz or 5 GHz802.11b/g802.11ac 1.3 Gbps(1300 Mbps)2.4 GHz and 5.5 GHz 802.11b/g/n802.11ad7 Gbps(7000 Mbps)2.4 GHz, 5 GHz and 60 GHz 802.11b/g/n/ac

Presentation_ID# 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco Confidential36Section 4.2.4.4

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Purpose of the Data Link LayerThe Data Link Layer

Presentation_ID# 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco Confidential37Section 4.3.1.1

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Purpose of the Data Link LayerData Link SublayersNetworkData LinkLLC SublayerMAC SublayerPhysical

802.3 Ethernet802.11 Wi-Fi802.15 Bluetooth

Presentation_ID# 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco Confidential38Section 4.3.1.2

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Purpose of the Data Link LayerMedia Access Control

Presentation_ID# 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco Confidential39Section 4.3.1.3

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Purpose of the Data Link LayerProviding Access to Media

Presentation_ID# 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco Confidential40Section 4.3.1.4

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Data Link LayerLayer 2 Frame Structure

Presentation_ID# 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco Confidential41Section 4.3.2.1

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Layer 2 Frame StructureCreating a Frame

Presentation_ID# 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco Confidential42Section 4.3.2.2

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Data Link LayerLayer 2 Standards

Presentation_ID# 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco Confidential43Section 4.3.3

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Layer 2 StandardsData Link Layer StandardsStandard organizationNetworking Standards IEEE802.2: Logical Link Control (LLC)802.3: Ethernet802.4: Token bus802.5: Token passing802.11: Wireless LAN (WLAN) & Mesh (Wi-Fi certification)802.15: Bluetooth802.16: WiMaxITU-TG.992: ADSLG.8100 - G.8199: MPLS over Transport aspectsQ.921: ISDN Q.922: Frame RelayISOHDLC (High Level Data Link Control)ISO 9314: FDDI Media Access Control (MAC)ANSIX3T9.5 and X3T12: Fiber Distributed Data Interface (FDDI)

Presentation_ID# 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco Confidential44Section 4.3.3.1

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TopologiesControlling Access to the Media

Presentation_ID# 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco Confidential45Section 4.4.1.1

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TopologiesPhysical and Logical Topologies

Presentation_ID# 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco Confidential46Section 4.4.1.2

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WAN TopologiesCommon Physical WAN Topologies

Presentation_ID# 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco Confidential47Section 4.4.2.1

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WAN TopologiesPhysical Point-to-Point Topology

Presentation_ID# 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco Confidential48Section 4.4.2.2

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WAN TopologiesLogical Point-to-Point Topology

Presentation_ID# 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco Confidential49Section 4.4.2.3

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WAN TopologiesHalf and Full Duplex

Presentation_ID# 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco Confidential50Section 4.4.2.4

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LAN TopologiesPhysical LAN Topologies

Presentation_ID# 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco Confidential51Section 4.4.3.1

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LAN TopologiesLogical Topology for Shared Media

Presentation_ID# 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco Confidential52Section 4.4.3.2

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LAN TopologiesContention-Based AccessCharacteristicsContention-Based TechnologiesStations can transmit at any timeCollision existThere are mechanisms to resolve contention for the mediaCSMA/CD for 802.3 Ethernet networksCSMA/CA for 802.11 wireless networks

Presentation_ID# 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco Confidential53Section 4.4.3.3

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LAN TopologiesMulti-Access Topology

Presentation_ID# 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco Confidential54Section 4.4.3.4

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LAN TopologiesControlled AccessCharacteristicsControlled Access TechnologiesOnly one station can transmit at a timeDevices wishing to transmit must wait their turnNo collisionsMay use a token passing methodToken Ring (IEEE 802.5)Fiber Distributed Data Interface (FDDI)

Presentation_ID# 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco Confidential55Section 4.4.3.5

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LAN TopologiesRing Topology

Presentation_ID# 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco Confidential56Section 4.4.3.6

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Data Link FrameThe Frame

Presentation_ID# 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco Confidential57Section 4.4.4.1

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Data Link FrameThe Header

Presentation_ID# 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco Confidential58Section 4.4.4.2

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Data Link FrameLayer 2 Address

Presentation_ID# 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco Confidential59Section 4.4.4.3

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Data Link FrameThe Trailer

Presentation_ID# 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco Confidential60Section 4.4.4.4

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Data Link FrameLAN and WAN Frames

Presentation_ID# 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco Confidential61Section 4.4.4.5

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Data Link FrameEthernet Frame

Presentation_ID# 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco Confidential62Section 4.4.4.6

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Data Link FramePoint-to-Point Protocol Frame

Presentation_ID# 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco Confidential63Section 4.4.4.7

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Data Link Frame802.11 Wireless Frame

Presentation_ID# 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco Confidential64Section 4.4.4.8

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Network AccessSummaryPhysical Layer ProtocolsNetwork MediaData Link Layer ProtocolsMedia Access Control

Presentation_ID# 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco Confidential65Section 4.5

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Presentation_ID# 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco Confidential