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© 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential Presentation_I D 1 Chapter 3: Network Protocols and Communications Introduction to Networks

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ITE PC v4.0 Chapter 1

Chapter 3:Network Protocols and CommunicationsIntroduction to Networks

2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco ConfidentialPresentation_ID#

Presentation_ID# 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco Confidential1Cisco Networking Academy programIntroduction to NetworksChapter 3: Network Protocols and Communications

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Chapter 3: ObjectivesStudents will be able to:Explain how rules are used to facilitate communication.Explain the role of protocols and standards organizations in facilitating interoperability in network communications.Explain how devices on a LAN access resources in a small to medium-sized business network.

Presentation_ID# 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco Confidential2

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Chapter 33.1 Rules of Communication3.2 Network Protocols and Standards3.3 Moving Data in the Network3.4 Summary

Presentation_ID# 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco Confidential3Chapter 3 Sections

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The RulesWhat is Communication?

Presentation_ID# 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco Confidential4Section 3.1.1.1

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The RulesEstablishing the RulesEstablishing the Rules

An identified sender and receiverAgreed upon method of communicating (face-to-face, telephone, letter, photograph)Common language and grammarSpeed and timing of deliveryConfirmation or acknowledgement requirements

Presentation_ID# 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco Confidential5Section 3.1.1.2

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The RulesMessage Encoding

Presentation_ID# 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco Confidential6Section 3.1.1.3

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The RulesMessage Formatting and EncapsulationExample: Personal letter contains the following elements:An identifier of the recipientA salutation or greetingThe message contentA closing phraseAn identifier of the sender

Presentation_ID# 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco Confidential7Section 3.1.1.4

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The RulesMessage SizeThe size restrictions of frames require the source host to break a long message into individual pieces that meet both the minimum and maximum size requirements. This is known as segmenting. Each segment is encapsulated in a separate frame with the address information, and is sent over the network. At the receiving host, the messages are de-encapsulated and put back together to be processed and interpreted.

Presentation_ID# 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco Confidential8Section 3.1.1.5

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The RulesMessage TimingAccess MethodFlow ControlResponse Timeout

Presentation_ID# 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco Confidential9Section 3.1.1.6

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The RulesMessage Delivery Options

Presentation_ID# 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco Confidential10Section 3.1.1.7

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ProtocolsRules that Govern Communications

Presentation_ID# 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco Confidential11Section 3.2.1.1

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ProtocolsNetwork ProtocolsHow the message is formatted or structuredThe process by which networking devices share information about pathways with other networksHow and when error and system messages are passed between devicesThe setup and termination of data transfer sessions

Presentation_ID# 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco Confidential12Section 3.2.1.2

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ProtocolsInteraction of ProtocolsApplication Protocol Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP)Transport Protocol Transmission Control Protocol (TCP)Internet Protocol Internet Protocol (IP)Network Access Protocols Data Link & Physical layers

Presentation_ID# 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco Confidential13Section 3.2.1.3

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Protocol SuitesProtocol Suites and Industry Standards

Presentation_ID# 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco Confidential14Section 3.2.2.1

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Protocol SuitesCreation of Internet, Development of TCP/IP

Presentation_ID# 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco Confidential15Section 3.2.2.2

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Protocol SuitesTCP/IP Protocol Suite and Communication

Presentation_ID# 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco Confidential16Section 3.2.2.3

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Network Protocols and StandardsStandards Organizations

Presentation_ID# 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco Confidential17Section 3.1.3

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Standards OrganizationsOpen StandardsThe Internet Society (ISOC)The Internet Architecture Board (IAB)The Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF)Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)The International Organization for Standards (ISO)

Presentation_ID# 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco Confidential18Section 3.2.3.1

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Standards OrganizationsISOC, IAB, and IETF

Presentation_ID# 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco Confidential19Section 3.2.3.2

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Standards OrganizationsIEEE38 societies130 journals1,300 conferences each year1,300 standards and projects400,000 members160 countriesIEEE 802.3IEEE 802.11

Presentation_ID# 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco Confidential20Section 3.2.3.3

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Standards OrganizationsISO

Presentation_ID# 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco Confidential21Section 3.2.3.4

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Standards OrganizationsOther Standards OrganizationThe Electronic Industries Alliance (EIA)The Telecommunications Industry Association (TIA)The International Telecommunications Union Telecommunications Standardization Sector (ITU-T)The Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN)The Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA)

Presentation_ID# 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco Confidential22Section 3.2.3.5

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Reference ModelsThe Benefits of Using a Layered Model

Presentation_ID# 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco Confidential23Section 3.2.4.1

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Reference ModelsThe OSI Reference Model

Presentation_ID# 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco Confidential24Section 3.2.4.2

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Reference ModelsThe TCP/IP Reference Model

Presentation_ID# 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco Confidential25Section 3.2.4.3

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Reference ModelsComparing the OSI and TCP/IP Models

Presentation_ID# 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco Confidential26Section 3.2.4.4

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Data EncapsulationCommunicating the MessagesSegmenting message benefitsDifferent conversations can be interleavedIncreased reliability of network communications

Segmenting message disadvantageIncreased level of complexity

Presentation_ID# 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco Confidential27Section 3.3.1.1

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Data EncapsulationProtocol Data Units (PDUs)DataSegmentPacketFrameBits

Presentation_ID# 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco Confidential28Section 3.3.1.2

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Data EncapsulationEncapsulation

Presentation_ID# 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco Confidential29Section 3.3.1.3

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Data EncapsulationDe-encapsulation

Presentation_ID# 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco Confidential30Section 3.3.1.4

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Moving Data in the NetworkAccessing Local Resources

Presentation_ID# 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco Confidential31Section 3.3.2

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Accessing Local ResourcesNetwork Addresses & Data Link addressesNetwork AddressSource IP addressDestination IP address

Data Link AddressSource data link addressDestination data link address

Presentation_ID# 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco Confidential32Section 3.3.2.1

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Accessing Local ResourcesCommunicating with Device / Same Network

Presentation_ID# 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco Confidential33Section 3.3.2.2

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Accessing Local ResourcesMAC and IP Addresses

PC1192.168.1.110AA-AA-AA-AA-AA-AAPC2192.168.1.111BB-BB-BB-BB-BB-BBFTP Server192.168.1.9CC-CC-CC-CC-CC-CCR1192.168.1.111-11-11-11-11-11

ARP RequestS1R1

Presentation_ID# 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco Confidential34Section 3.3.2.3

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Accessing Remote ResourcesDefault Gateway

PC 1192.168.1.110AA-AA-AA-AA-AA-AAPC 2192.168.1.111BB-BB-BB-BB-BB-BBFTP Server192.168.1.9CC-CC-CC-CC-CC-CCR1192.168.1.111-11-11-11-11-11R2172.16.1.9922-22-22-22-22-22Web Server172.16.1.99AB-CD-EF-12-34-56

Presentation_ID# 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco Confidential35Section 3.3.3.1

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Accessing Remote ResourcesCommunicating Device / Remote Network

Presentation_ID# 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco Confidential36Section 3.3.3.2

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Accessing Remote ResourcesUsing Wireshark to View Network Traffic

Presentation_ID# 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco Confidential37Section 3.3.3.4

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Network Protocols and CommunicationsSummaryIn this chapter, you learned:Data networks are systems of end devices, intermediary devices, and the media connecting the devices. For communication to occur, these devices must know how to communicate.These devices must comply with communication rules and protocols. TCP/IP is an example of a protocol suite. Most protocols are created by a standards organization such as the IETF or IEEE. The most widely-used networking models are the OSI and TCP/IP models.

Presentation_ID# 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco Confidential38Section 1.5 & 1.5.1

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Network Protocols and CommunicationsSummaryIn this chapter, you learned:Data that passes down the stack of the OSI model is segmented into pieces and encapsulated with addresses and other labels. The process is reversed as the pieces are de-encapsulated and passed up the destination protocol stack. The OSI model describes the processes of encoding, formatting, segmenting, and encapsulating data for transmission over the network.The TCP/IP protocol suite is an open standard protocol that has been endorsed by the networking industry and ratified, or approved, by a standards organization.

Presentation_ID# 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco Confidential39Section 1.5 & 1.5.1

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Network Protocols and CommunicationsSummaryIn this chapter, you learned:The Internet Protocol Suite is a suite of protocols required for transmitting and receiving information using the Internet. Protocol Data Units (PDUs) are named according to the protocols of the TCP/IP suite: data, segment, packet, frame, and bits.Applying models allows individuals, companies, and trade associations to analyze current networks and plan the networks of the future.

Presentation_ID# 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco Confidential40Section 1.5 & 1.5.1

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Presentation_ID# 2008 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco Confidential