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  1. 1. Welcome toChapter No: 08 of MKT 425: Consumer BehaviorChapter Name: Perception Modular: Mr. Afjal Hossain Lecturer Department of Marketing, PSTULeon G. Schiffman & Leslie Lazar Kanuk Consumer Behavior 8th edition, Prentice Hall 200601
  2. 2. Learning Objectives 1. Understand the roles of perception of defining any object.2. To know the function of the different sensory organs.3. To know how the perception of different people are changed over time.Leon G. Schiffman & Leslie Lazar Kanuk Consumer Behavior 8th edition, Prentice Hall 200602
  3. 3. Definition Perception: How a person see world around him? How each person recognizes, selects, organizes and interprets the stimuli based on his/ her own needs, values and expectations? The process by which an individual uses information to create a meaningful picture of the world by selecting, organizing interpreting Perception is important because people selectively perceive what they want and it affects how people see risks in a purchase. Leon G. Schiffman & Leslie Lazar Kanuk Consumer Behavior 8th edition, Prentice Hall 200603
  4. 4. DefinitionStimuli: Stimuli is the plural form of Stimulus. A stimulus is any unit of input to any of the sense.Examples, product, packages, advertisements and commercials.Leon G. Schiffman & Leslie Lazar Kanuk Consumer Behavior 8th edition, Prentice Hall 2006brandnames,04
  5. 5. Elements of Perception Elements of Perception 1. Sensation: Sensation is the immediate and direct response of the sensory organs to stimuli.Leon G. Schiffman & Leslie Lazar Kanuk Consumer Behavior 8th edition, Prentice Hall 200605
  6. 6. Elements of Perception (continued) Sensory Receptors: Sensory receptors are human organs or sensory organs that receive sensory inputs. Sensory OrgansFunctionsEyesTo seeEarsTo hearNoseTo smellMouthTo tasteSkinTo feelLeon G. Schiffman & Leslie Lazar Kanuk Consumer Behavior 8th edition, Prentice Hall 200606
  7. 7. Elements of Perception (continued) 2.Absolute Threshold The lowest level at which an individual can experience a sensation. The point at which a person can detect a difference between something and nothing is his/ her absolute threshold for that stimulus. Ex: The distance at which a driver can note a specific billboard on a highway is that individual's absolute threshold.Leon G. Schiffman & Leslie Lazar Kanuk Consumer Behavior 8th edition, Prentice Hall 200607
  8. 8. Elements of Perception (continued) Sensory Adaptation: It is a problem that concerns many national advertisers which is why they try to change their advertising campaign regularly. The only reason they think that the ads will no longer provide sufficient sensory input to be noted.Leon G. Schiffman & Leslie Lazar Kanuk Consumer Behavior 8th edition, Prentice Hall 200608
  9. 9. Elements of Perception (continued) Sensory Adaptation: Other Reasons: They are using so much clutterThey are decreasing sensory inputThey are placing their ads in unusual/ technological mediaPackage designers try to determine consumers absolute thresholdLeon G. Schiffman & Leslie Lazar Kanuk Consumer Behavior 8th edition, Prentice Hall 200609
  10. 10. Elements of Perception (continued) 3.Differential Threshold The minimal difference that can be detected between two similar stimuli. Ex: The price of juice pack cant notice but the price of milkpowder/ electricity will be noticed.It is also known as Just Noticeable Difference/ j.n.d.Leon G. Schiffman & Leslie Lazar Kanuk Consumer Behavior 8th edition, Prentice Hall 2006010
  11. 11. Elements of Perception (continued) Marketing Implications of j.n.d. Manufacturers/ Marketers use j.n.d. for their products for 2 reasons: Negative changes (below the j.n.d.)reduction in product size/ quality, increase the product price Product improvements (above the j.n.d.) lower price, updated packaging, larger size etc.Leon G. Schiffman & Leslie Lazar Kanuk Consumer Behavior 8th edition, Prentice Hall 2006011
  12. 12. Elements of Perception (continued) 4.Subliminal Perception When people perceive the thing at the level beyond they should be is called subliminal perception. Ex: Bangla Film.Leon G. Schiffman & Leslie Lazar Kanuk Consumer Behavior 8th edition, Prentice Hall 2006012
  13. 13. Elements of Perception (continued) 5.Supraliminal Perception When people perceive the thing at the level above they should be is called supraliminal perception. Ex: English Film.Leon G. Schiffman & Leslie Lazar Kanuk Consumer Behavior 8th edition, Prentice Hall 2006013
  14. 14. Dynamics of Perception One of the major principles of perception is dynamics of perception: Raw sensory input by itself does not produce or explain the coherent picture of the world. Indeed, the study of perception is what we subconsciously add to or subtract from raw sensory inputs to produce our own private picture of the world. There are 3 aspects of perception: 1. 2. 3.Perceptual Selection Perceptual Organization Perceptual InterpretationLeon G. Schiffman & Leslie Lazar Kanuk Consumer Behavior 8th edition, Prentice Hall 2006014
  15. 15. Dynamics of Perception (continued) 1. Perceptual Selection Perceptual Selection is to recognize the stimuli. Stimuli selected based on two major factors: Consumer previous experience Their motives at the time These factors give rise to 4 important concepts of concerning perception: a. Selective Exposure b. Selective Attention c. Perceptual Defense d. Perceptual BlockingLeon G. Schiffman & Leslie Lazar Kanuk Consumer Behavior 8th edition, Prentice Hall 2006015
  16. 16. Dynamics of Perception (continued) 2. Perceptual organization The principles of perceptual organization is first developed by Gestalt and referred to as Gestalt psychology. Three basic principles are: Figure-ground Grouping ClosureLeon G. Schiffman & Leslie Lazar Kanuk Consumer Behavior 8th edition, Prentice Hall 2006016
  17. 17. Dynamics of Perception (continued) 2. Perceptual organization Figure-ground Organization depends on what we see as figure (object) and what we perceive a ground (context).Leon G. Schiffman & Leslie Lazar Kanuk Consumer Behavior 8th edition, Prentice Hall 2006017
  18. 18. Dynamics of Perception (continued) 2. Perceptual organization Figure-groundLeon G. Schiffman & Leslie Lazar Kanuk Consumer Behavior 8th edition, Prentice Hall 2006018
  19. 19. Dynamics of Perception (continued) 2. Perceptual organization Grouping Organization depends on what we form a unified picture or information as groups or chunks of information rather than as discrete bits of information.Leon G. Schiffman & Leslie Lazar Kanuk Consumer Behavior 8th edition, Prentice Hall 2006019
  20. 20. Dynamics of Perception (continued) 2. Perceptual organization Laws of Perceptual GroupingLeon G. Schiffman & Leslie Lazar Kanuk Consumer Behavior 8th edition, Prentice Hall 2006020
  21. 21. Dynamics of Perception (continued) 2. Perceptual organization Closure We perceive figures with gaps in them to be complete.Leon G. Schiffman & Leslie Lazar Kanuk Consumer Behavior 8th edition, Prentice Hall 2006021
  22. 22. Dynamics of Perception 3. Perceptual Interpretation The interpretation of stimuli is uniquely individual because It is based on what they expect to see in the light of previous experience Number of plausible explanations they can envision Motives and interest at the time of perception.Leon G. Schiffman & Leslie Lazar Kanuk Consumer Behavior 8th edition, Prentice Hall 2006022
  23. 23. Perceptual Distortion 1. Physical Appearances People like those people who are smart, beautiful etc2. Stereotypes Black & White men are arrested together meaning that white arrests black.3. First Impressions People love at first sight.4. Jumping to Conclusions You will be slim/ heavy if you purchase this product.5. Halo Effect Whenever one thing can be interpreted from different angle.Leon G. Schiffman & Leslie Lazar Kanuk Consumer Behavior 8th edition, Prentice Hall 2006023
  24. 24. Query?
  25. 25. Thank You For staying with me Leon G. Schiffman & Leslie Lazar Kanuk Consumer Behavior 8th edition, Prentice Hall 2006025