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<p>Drawing the Line</p> <p>The History and Impact of Political Cartooning in Kenya1 Drawing the Line</p> <p>2</p> <p>Drawing the Line</p> <p>Drawing the LineThe history and impact of cartooning in Kenya</p> <p>3</p> <p>Drawing the Line</p> <p>Published by: Friedrich Ebert Stiftung (FES), P.O. Box 14932, Nairobi, Kenya. Peponi Plaza, Peponi Rd. Telefax: +254-020-3748338/9 Email: kenia@fes.de and Association of East African Cartoonists(KATUNI) P.O. Box 3613-00200, Nairobi, Kenya. Email: katuni@kenyatoons.com (c) Friedrich Ebert Stiftung (FES) (C) Association of East african Cartoonists (KATUNI)</p> <p>ISBN: April 2004</p> <p>4</p> <p>Drawing the Line</p> <p>Table of ContentsPreface Foreword Section One A brief history of Political Cartoons Role of Catoonists Section Two History of cartooning in Kenya Early Cartoons Juha Kalulu Terry Hirst and Joe Magazine Resident Foreign Cartoonists Local Cartoonists The Challenges of Cartooning The Future Section Three The Study Findings Conclusions Directory of Local Cartoonists 6 7</p> <p>8 14</p> <p>16 17 19 20 22 24 27 29</p> <p>34 36 42 42</p> <p>5</p> <p>Drawing the Line</p> <p>Preface</p> <p>Friedrich Ebert StiftungKenya Office</p> <p>6</p> <p>Drawing the Line</p> <p>Foreword</p> <p>By P.L.O. LumumbaSecretary, Constitution Review Commission of Kenya</p> <p>The old adage a picture is worth a thousand words has never been so true as in the world of cartoons. This justifies the universal popularity of cartoons as the lingua franca of satire. Though cartooning as a medium of communication and expression is a relatively new phenomenon in Kenya, many a newspaper reader has become so addicted to editorial and thematic cartoon strips that a newspaper without either is not considered a worthy buy. Messages that cannot be conveyed in words for sensitivity, political correctness or prejudice are effectively communicated through cartoons. In a nutshell, cartoons have become the sugar coating for the bitter but necessary message. We appreciate the now settled role of cartoons and their creators as the latter day conscience of the nation. Kudos to the Association of East African Cartoonist (KATUNI) for immortalizing the history of cartoons in the written word! Let this initiative be not a seasonal oasis in a desert of information but a modest beginning of what will be a vast ocean of Katunist message for present and future generations.7 Drawing the Line</p> <p>Background</p> <p>A Brief History of Political CartoonsKnife-edged and salient, there is no simpler or more effective form of journalism than the editorial or political cartoon. The message usually critical is instantaneous, and often funny.</p> <p>Political cartoons (from cartone, the Italian word for pasteboard.*) are for the most part composed of two elements: caricature, which parodies the individual, and allusion, which creates the situation or context into which the individual is placed. Caricature as a Western discipline goes back to Leonardo da Vincis artistic explorations of the ideal type of deformity the grotesque which he used to better understand the concept of ideal beauty. Over time, the principles of form established in part by Leonardo had become so ingrained into the method of portraiture that artists like Agostino and Annibale Carracci rebelled against them. Intended to be lighthearted satires, their caricaturas were, in essence, counter-art.* The Italian masters used pasteboard for rough drawings (cartoni), which were especially useful in preparing frescoes and tapestries. The word did not come to mean an amusing sketch until the 1840s when Prince Albert, who wanted to decorate the walls of the Drawing the Line new Houses of Parliament in London with frescoes, opened a competition for their design. The cartoons for the frescoes, some of them absurd in their attempts to appear heroic, were exhibited in 1843 and parodied shortly thereafter in the English magazine Punch, thus earning the word its present meaning.</p> <p>8</p> <p>The sketch of A Captain of Pope Urban VIII is representative of the new genre in that it is a quick, impressionistic drawing that exaggerates prominent physical characteristics to humourous effect. At its best, it brings out the subjects inner self in a kind of physiognomical satire and seems to be a comment on some facet of the Captains masculinity. Caricaturas became popular with collectors, but they perceived the fanciful exercises as curiosities rather than viable artistic productions. As a result, they were not displayed publicly and so one of the earliest modes of graphic satire remained in the parlour and drawing room. While caricature originated around the Mediterranean, cartoons of a more editorial nature developed in a chillier climate. The Protestant Reformation began in Germany, and made extensive use of visual propaganda; the success of both Martin Luthers socio-religious reforms and the discipline of political cartooning depended on a level of civilisation neither too primitive nor too advanced. A merchant class had emerged to occupy positions of leadership within the growing villages and towns, which meant that a core of people existed who would respond9 Drawing the Line</p> <p>to Luthers invectives and be economically capable of resisting the all-powerful Catholic Church. With regard to the physical requirements of graphic art, both woodcutting and metal engraving had become established trades, with many artists and draughtsmen sympathetic to the cause. Finally, the factor which probably influenced the rise of cartoons more than any other cultural condition was a high illiteracy rate. Luther recognised that the support of an increasingly more powerful middle class was crucial to the success of his reforms, but in order to lead a truly popular movement he would need the sheer weight of the peasantrys numbers. The distribution of simple broadsheet posters or illustrated pamphlets throughout population centres proved to be an effective strategy because the images would reach a large amount of people and enjoy the greatest possible amount of comprehension. As Barry Burden, assistant professor of government at Harvard University, puts it, Satire was once the way for illiterate people to make sense of what was going on in politics. An excellent example of Luthers use of visual protest is found in two woodcuts from the pamphlet Passional Christi und10 Drawing the Line</p> <p>Antichristi, originally drawn by Lucas Cranach the Elder. These two images contrast the actions of Jesus with those of the Church hierarchy. The hegemony of religion at the time ensured that when someone drew a Biblical episode like that of Jesus driving the moneychangers out of the Temple, everyone would recognise it.The artist juxtaposed the first scene with a contemporary tableau that many people would also understand: the Pope writes indulgences while common folk pay their hard earned money in tribute. The two pictures clearly intend to raise public consciousness by illustrating the premise that changes must be made within the Church for life to ever become more Christlike. Passional Christi und Antichristi also demonstrates the artists use of the second element of political cartoons-- the context of a widely-recognised story or setting to get his point across. As time went on, Germanic art assimilated the Italian caricatura and established the conventions practiced on a wide basis by cartoonists of the 18th Century. The cartoon became a substantial medium of commentary which took serious issues and presented them in a manner which was not only amusing,11 Drawing the Line</p> <p>and therefore more socially acceptable, but also designed to affect the viewers opinion. As Western culture diversified from its original religious foundation, new subjects became available for discussion and subsequent ridicule; as such the appeal and influence of cartoons on public life grew in proportion. The American political cartoon was born in Philadelphia. This is sometimes credited to Benjamin Franklin for his famed Join or Die of 1974, showing a severed snake, its separate parts labeled as colonies. But four copperplate images, a 176465 series, are considered the true beginning of the tradition in their comic-but-cutting depiction of a political event, and particularly, of Franklin himself. The series inflamed tempers during the 1764 elections and ultimately cost Franklin his seat in the Pennsylvania Assembly, the only election he was ever to lose. In the 18th Century the cartoonists of England, Russia, Germany, Spain, and the United States generally declared satirical war on Napoleon, and so effective were they that Napoleon sent notes to the government of England requesting their suppression, equating them with murderers. By the mid-19th century, editorial cartoons had become regular12 Drawing the Line</p> <p>features in American newspapers, and were soon followed by sports cartoons and humourous cartoons. The effect of political cartoons on public opinion was amply demonstrated with the demise of William Tweed, a New York politician in the 1870s, largely caused by the attention paid to him by cartoonist Thomas Nast. Tweeds exasperated response speaks to the power of Nasts cartoons. He demanded of his henchmen,Stop them damned pictures. I dont care what the papers write about me. My constituents cant read. But, damn it, they can see pictures! In the 20th Century, the influence of cartoons was such that Hitler and Stalin surrounded themselves with large groups of pocket cartoonists who praised them extravagantly. They also destroyed or exiled cartoonists critical of them. During the Battle for Britain Englishman David Low, considered the centurys greatest cartoonist, was put on Hitlers death list. In recent years, 29 countries have jailed or otherwise punished newspaper cartoonists, according to the Cartoonist Relief Network which is dedicated to the protection of the rights of</p> <p>13</p> <p>Drawing the Line</p> <p>editorial cartoonists. The role of cartoonists As we have seen, for half a millenium cartoonists have exposed abuses of power, the corruption of government and the hypocrisy of society. Cartoons provide a running commentary on events, people, attitudes and preoccupations, and reflect momentary shifts in public sentiment. According to one theory, as reported by Ray Morris of York University, cartooning depends on the political system. In totalitarian regimes the artist is forced to praise the system and denounce its enemies. In authoritarian regimes some dissent is allowed, and when the regimes become brittle cartoonists mercilessly expose their rigid foolishness. In a Western (style) democracy during peace-time, cartoonists are watchdogs, keeping power-holders honest and accountable. One might then generalise that cartoonists focus on office-holders and aspirants whom the public can hope to defeat in an election or a popular uprising. Cartoons focus overwhelmingly on the leaders of the party in power. Other government and business figures are in the minority. According to Dr. Robert Russell, Director of Cartoonists Relief Network and a 30-year veteran of international community</p> <p>14</p> <p>Drawing the Line</p> <p>development, human rights and humanitarian assistance the editorial cartoonist in most developing countries continues to be an important and highly efficient point of national political and policy debate. He adds, As I constantly searched for the most efficient and effective point of democratic intervention when assigned to small Third World countries where budgets for social development were so very small... the man on the street could never tell me the name of any editorial writer in their local press, but even the illiterate population always knew who their favorite editorial cartoonist was. Cynthia Bailey Lee states in A Semiotic Analysis of Political Cartoons, a study of the visual images of presidential candidates portrayed in the editorial cartoons in the 2000 US presidential election campaign, political cartoons are...successful in helping society to understand and make judgments about the extremely complex interactions at work in political systems. Finally, US cartoonist Herb Block, who coined the term McCarthyism and attacked the infamous anti-communist investigations of that era notes in his essay, The Cartoon: Cartooning is an irreverent form of expression...If the prime role of a free press is to serve as critic of government, cartooning is often the cutting edge of that criticism.15 Drawing the Line</p> <p>Section One</p> <p>The historical development of cartooning in KenyaThe history of journalism and cartooning in Kenya are closely intertwined. It is near impossible to tell the story of cartooning without going back, even if only referentially, to that of journalism. While cartooning may be riding on the back of journalism today, it can be argued that in Africa, the history of this art would simply dwarf that of journalism if the former were documented, for caricaturing is much older than journalism.</p> <p>The rocks of Africa are host to millions of images caricatured on them, literally across the continent. These go back in time to about 12,000 years. What makes the connection between these and later caricaturing is occasional similarity between the way people are caricatured on the rocks and some of the early cartoons that appear, for instance, in the Karonga Kronikal. Journalism in Kenya is a little over a century old, often traced back to the founding of the East African Standard in 1902. It is a story that can be told through the prism of a triple-M</p> <p>16</p> <p>Drawing the Line</p> <p>heritage: missionaries, mercenaries, and merchants, pretty much in that order. The missionaries came, pioneered literacy and publication; the mercenaries followed and furthered the course of journalism through colonial government sponsored publications, and finally the merchants took over, a trend that began with the founding of Kenyas oldest newspaper and in spite of Africas history of government control of the media, has remained largely true in the case of Kenya. Whether early missionary sponsored newspapers carried any caricatures is not clear since there are no records to that effect and the copies of theses publications have since disappeared into the mist of time. But the commercial papers, particularly those identified with the colonial government, soon were carrying syndicated cartoons, for the pleasure of the civil servants.</p> <p>Early Cartoons The earliest reference to cartoons in East Africa chronicles the circulation of caricatures among soldiers fighting in World War I. According to Melvin E. Page, in an article titled With Jannie17 Drawing the Line</p> <p>in the Jungle: European Humour in an East African Campaign published in The International Journal of African Historical Studies in 1981, Cartoons and anecdotes circulated throughout East Africa; at least one humour magazine, the Karonga Kronikal, was created for and by the troops. The purposes of the Kronikal and other sources of humour were to boost the morale of the soldiers and to provide an ou...</p>