carpets - carpet is soft floor coverings. the quality of carpet depends not only on the method of...
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Carpet is soft floor coverings. The quality of carpet depends not only on the method of
manufacture, but also on how well the carpet is made, the fibres used, quality of fibre,
and the density of pile. A good quality carpet should be able to withstand wear from
constant footfalls, spillages, cigarette ash, and grit and also have the ability to recover
from the effects of heavy or sharp furniture. Its shape and color should be stable even if
deep-cleaned or constantly exposed to sunlight. The pile should be dense and made from
strong fibres, held firmly in position.
Carpets are used extensively in all types of establishments because of their appearance,
the safety factor, warmth and sound insulation. Durability, appearance and ease of
maintenance are the major concern when choosing carpet and floor. There are many
carpets from which to choose, with a wide price range, and carpet performance may be
Durability depends on-
Resistance to wear. Resistance to abrasion. Good construction with tufts well held.
Appearance depends on-
Resistance to flattening. Soil and stain resistance. Color fastness to sunlight, water, shampoo, and rubbing.
Safety depends on-
Flame resistance. Comfort depends on-
No build-up of static electricity. Length and softness of pile.
Carpets primarily have three components- an underlay, a backing, and a face or pile. The
pile is held to the backing with knots (in case of woven carpet) or with adhesive. As
underlay is essential if a carpet is to be laid.
UNDERLAY/ BACKING -
Underlay or under-felt acts as shock absorber between the carpet backing and any un
evenness in the sub-floor, which could cause
pile to wear out. It tends the carpet to feel softer
and more luxurious as well as helps to absorb
pressure from furniture, provide increased
sound and heat insulation.
An underlay may also be attached beneath the
carpet backing, when it is referred to as the
secondary backing, or it may be installed separately.
BACKING The primary backing is the one in which pile of the carpet is anchored. It may be made of
natural material such as jute, hemp or cotton, or synthetic material such as polypropylene,
nylon, various resins, or synthetic rubber or of a combination of natural and synthetic
materials. Normally the primary backing
has bonding material that may be of rubber,
latex, plastic, synthetic adhesive which
holds the fibre in place. A secondary
backing sometimes laminated to the
primary backing provides additional
stability; improve shape and resilience and
more secure installation. These are not
necessary for woven carpet.
PILE Also called the face of the carpet, this is the part which is seen on the surface and walked on. Hence it should be strong and resilient. The pile may be made of a blend of
fibres or exclusive synthetic or natural fibre (such as wool and cotton; silk is used in very
expensive luxurious carpet). The blends used are typically of wool and rayon; wool and
cotton; wool, acrylic and rayon; and so on. The synthetic fibres usually are polypropylene
polyester and acrylic. The pile fibre density, height, twist, and the weave affect the
carpets resilience and durability.
Different types of pile are-
HARD TWIST PILE-
This is a cut pile with heavy
twist built into the yarn,
giving it a pebble look. It is
used mainly in plain carpets,
but it can be combined with
other types of pile to give a
textured effect. Hard-twist
pile does not show shading
and tacking.(shading is the
twisting of pile, caused by
footfalls or the moving of
heavy furniture, and shows
up as dark patches. Tracking
is the smoothing down of the
carpet in heavily used area.)
LOOPED PILE The pile is uncut and is made up of a continuous series of loops. It can give various
textures, from a thick and knobby pile to the closely curled low-loop pile that is like an
irregular cord carpet. Looped pile is used in Wilton and Tufted carpets.
The loops of the pile are cut is such carpets. Tufted and woven carpets are produced in
cut pile; Axminster carpets, it is the only type of pile produced.
This can be produced on a tufting machine or on a Wilton or Axminster loom. The pile is
long and shaggy and has luxurious look.
TYPES AND CHARACTERISTIC-
TYPES OF NON-WOVEN CARPETS-
These carpets are produced by attaching the surface pile to a pre-fabricated
Tufted carpets account for about 95% of
the total carpet production in the world.
These are available plain or patterned and
are usually made of synthetic fibre
blended with wool. The tufts are needled
into a backing- usually made of
polypropylene in sheet form, but
sometimes made of hessian. The tufts are
locked into place with latex along the
back. Then either the foam layer or a
secondary backing of woven jute or
polypropylene is added. If a foam backing is used an
underlay is not required. The pile is either looped or
cut. Tufted carpets do not fray.
Shag pile carpets are usually singled-colored
tufted carpets with a long, luxurious pile. The pile
can, however, look tangled if it gets heavy wear.
They are hard to maintain, too, since the long pile
hides a lot of dust.
BERBER CARPETS- These carpets have short, nubby tufts.
The pile is dense and looped, characteristic made from
natural, un-dyed sheeps wool. They are available in natural neutrals such as white, off-white, fawn, beige etc.
BONDED CARPETS- These carpets are
neither woven nor tufted. The one feature
that distinguished bonded carpets are that
the materials used are glued, heat fused,
or in some other way bonded together.
They are all, therefore, typically
manufactured from manmade fibres. A
well bonded carpet is bonded and
BONDED PILE CARPET- These
generally have a pile of nylon or polypropylene, which is stuck to a PVC backing. These
are also available tile form.
ELECTRO STATICALLY FLOCKED CARPETS- Bonding is also used for flocked carpet,
which have thousands of small fibres electro statically bonded to an adhesive-coated
NEEDLE PUNCH CARPET- Another method
of bonding is needle punch or needle loom. A
mixture of fibres is punched by needles and
entangled through a backing fabric.
KNITTED CARPETS- These carpets are produced by
interlacing yarns in a series of connected loops, as in woven
carpets, the pile and the backing are produced
simultaneously. Multiple sets of needles interlace the pile,
backing, and stitching yarns together in one operation.
TYPES OF WOVEN CARPET-
Some of the highest quality carpets are made by the weaving method. The pile and the
backing are woven together here so that the pile is locked into position. The weave
consist of warp and weft yarns interwoven to form the face pile and backing at the same
time. The pile may be cut or uncut. Woven carpets may be of three types Wilton, Axminster and Oriental. Wilton and Axminster are name of the loom on which these
types of carpets are woven. The main difference is that the Axminster loom allows any
number of colors as the threads are cut off and reintroduced according to the
Wilton is the most expensive weave
used for carpet manufacturing. These
may be produced as patterned, Cord,
Brussels, or Plain.
PATTERNED WILTON- these carpets are woven on a type of loom known as a jacquard
loom. This is an apparatus that produces pattern from colored yarns. A perforated card
contains the pattern/ design. These carpets give added warmth and resilience. Once the
carpet is done the pile is cut and closed. No more than 5 colors are used.
PLAIN WILTON These carpets are made without adding the jacquard apparatus to the loom. They have extra jute threads called stuffers added to the backing to compensate for the lack of the spare colored yarns as filling.
CORD- These carpets are plain Wilton carpets with an uncut pile.
BRUSSELS- these carpets are patterned Wilton carpets that have an uncut pile.
An Axminster-type power loom is capable of weaving high quality carpets with many
varying colours and patterns. These carpets
are woven is such a way that the pile is
almost entirely on the surface. Each pile
tuft is individually inserted into the
backing, leaving no dead threads to
reinforce it. The pile is less close and
longer than in Wilton carpets. The backing
is very durable. There are three types of
SPOOL AXMINSTER- This is the most
popular Axminster carpet and single piece
can have an unlimited color in the pattern.
The carpet is woven in such a manner that
the pattern is visible on reverse side also.
GRIPPER AXMINSTER- This carpet is similar to spool Axminster carpet, the only
difference being the use of a maximum of eight colors, due to i