capital humà – diferències de gènere

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Capital humà – diferències de gènere. Núria Mallorquí Departament d’Economia i d’Història Econòmica, UAB. Observatori per a la Igualtat de la UAB. Principals teories. A.1 – Clàssics A.2 – Neoclàssics A.3 – Crítica feminista. A.1 Clàssics. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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  • Capital hum diferncies de gnereNria Mallorqu Departament dEconomia i dHistria Econmica, UABObservatori per a la Igualtat de la UAB

  • Principals teoriesA.1 Clssics

    A.2 Neoclssics

    A.3 Crtica feminista

  • A.1 ClssicsSmith (1723-1790), T.R. Malthus (1766-1834), J.S. Mill (1806-1873)

    Les principals aportacions dels economistes clssics sobre el capital hum es resumeixen en els dos punts segents:

    a) Les diferncies en la productivitat del treball vnen donades per les capacitats innates i adquirides dels individus i, aquesta productivitat s la que determina el seu salari.

  • A.1 ClssicsThe difference of natural talents in different men is, in reality, much less than we are aware of; and the very different genius which appears to distinguish men of different professions, when grown up to maturity, is not upon many occasions so much the cause, as the effect of the division of labour. The difference between the most dissimilar characters, between a philosopher and a common street porter, for examples, seems to arise not so much from nature, as from habit, custom, and education. When they came into the world, and for the first six or eight years of their existence, they where, perhaps, very much alike, and neither their parents nor playfellows could perceive any remarkable difference. About that age, or soon after, they come to be employed in very different occupations. P. 19-20 [Smith, A. (1961 [1776]): The Wealth of Nations. London. University paperbacks by Methuen].

  • A.1 ClssicsAnd it is obvious that particular skill, both in trades and profesions, is paid high, with but little reference to the labour employed in acquiring it, which, owing to superior talent, is often less than that which is frequently applied to the acquisition of inferior proficency. But all these cases are accounted for in the esasiest and most natural manner, upon the principle of supply and demand. P. 221 [Malthus, T. R. (1968 [1836]): Principles of Political Economy considered with a view to their practical application. Second Edition. Nueva York. Reprints of Economic Classics. Augustus M. Kelley Publishers].

  • A.1 ClssicsPer altra part, hi ha feines que per la seva naturalesa (ms brutes, necessitat de ms confiana..) han de ser ms ben pagades.

    The five following are the principal circumstances which, so far as I have been able to observe, make up for a small pecuniary gain in some employments, and counter-balance a great one in others: first, the agreeableness or disagreeableness of the employments themselves; secondly, the easiness and cheapness, or the difficulty and expence of learning them; thirdly, the constancy or inconstancy of employment in them; fourthly, the small or great trust which must be reposed in those who exercise them; and fifthly, the probability or improbability of success in them. P. 112 [Smith, A. (1961 [1776]): The Wealth of Nations. London. University paperbacks by Methuen].

  • A.1 Clssics

    These inequalities of remuneration, which are supposed to compensate for the disagreeable circumstances of particular employments, would, under certain conditions, be natural consequences of perfectly free competition. P 383 [Mill, J. S. (1968 [1848]): Principles of Political Economy with Some of Their Applications to Social Philosophy. London, Ontario. University of Toronto Press. Routledge & Kegan Paul].

  • A.1 Clssics En conclusi, segons els clssics, les diferncies salarials entre els homes i les dones vnen marcades pel seu diferent bagatge histric i pel tipus de feina que realitzen en el mercat de treball. s a dir:

    Les dones no han format part del mercat laboral formal fins a mitjans del segle XX: Els falta de experiencia.

    Les dones no han tingut accs al sistema educatiu i, sobretot a leducaci superior fins ben entrat el segle XX: Els falta qualificacio.

    La majoria de feines que realitzen les dones sn considerades com a feines poc qualificades o de poca categoria, en el sentit que no calen molts coneixements ni sn excessivament dures o brutes: Feines de baixa remuneracio.

  • A.2 NeoclssicsMarshall (1842-1924); T.W. Schultz (1902-1998); G. Becker (1930-)

    Teoria del Capital Hum (G. Becker, 1964)Primeres aportacions: les diferncies salarials vnen marcades per diferncies en la productivitat, per tant, el menor salari de les dones ve donat per la seva menor productivitat laboral.

    But when reference is made to differences of earnings power of different people in the same occupation, then efficency is to be estimated with special reference to those particular elements of efficiency which are needed for that occupation.It is commonly said that the tendency of competition is to equalize the earnings of people engaged in the same trade or in trades of equal difficulty; but this statement requiere to be interpreted carfully. P. 455 [Marshall, A. (1920 [1890]): Principles of Economics. An introductory volume. "Natura non facit saltum". Eighth Edition. London. Macmillan].

  • A.2 NeoclssicsThe value of additional human capital depends on the additional well-being that human beings derive from it. Human capital contributes to labor productivity and to entrepreneurial ability valuable in farm and non farm production, in household production, in the time and other resources that students allocate to their education, and in migration to better job opportunities and better locations in which to live. P. 11-12. [Schultz, T.W. (1961): Investment in human capital. The American economic review, LI (1): 1-17].

  • A.2 NeoclssicsSocial and private economic returns from college would differ if a college education had different effects on earnings and productivity. P. 118 [Becker, G. S. (1964): Human Capital. A theoretical and empirical analysis, with special reference to education. Nueva York. National Bureau of Economic Research].

  • A.2 Neoclssics La pregunta que els faltaria respondre als defensors de la teoria del capital hum s: Com es medeix la productivitat o com es determina qu s una activitat productiva?.

    Posteriorment, es suavitza la teoria quan sincorpora la idea que hi pot haver una discriminaci per part de lempresari i que aquesta pot ser tant racial com sexual o social. En aquest cas, les diferncies salarials no sexpliquen noms per diferncies en la productivitat si no que tamb poden ser causades pels gustos o preferncies de qui contracta la m dobra.

  • A.2 NeoclssicsIf one individual discriminates against another, his behavior lacks objectivity; in the market place, objective behavior is based on considerations of productivity alone. An employer discrimnates by refusing to hire someone with a marginal value product greater than marginal cost, as might occur in cases of dicrimination by employees or customers against this person. A discriminator express his subjetvive tastes or preferences, and these tastes have been quantified by means of dicrimination coefficients. P. 39 [Becker, G. S. ([1957] 1971): The economics of discrimination. Chicago. The University of Chicago Press].

  • A.2 NeoclssicsEn conclusi, la teoria del capital hum justifica sempre les diferncies salarials, sigui per les diferncies objectives (en la productivitat dels treballadors) o per les diferncies subjectives (en les preferncies dels empresaris). I, per tant, en cap cas hi ha cap possibilitat devitar que hi hagi aquestes diferncies salarials ja que sempre sn justificades, per les preferncies empresarials o per la menor productivitat.

  • A.3 Crtica feministaEl treball de les dones est menys valorat perqu existeix una construcci social que es basa en la idea que les dones es dediquen a aquelles feines per les que estan innatament ms preparades i, per tant, sn feines per les que no es necessita ni preparaci ni qualificaci, feines com tenir cura dels altres (nens, gent gran) o b de serveis. s a dir, feines relacionades amb el treball domstic en el que les dones shan especialitzat al llarg de la histria sense cap necessitat duna educaci especfica. Conseqentment, se suposa que per a elles lesfor s menor i per tant no han de ser tant recompensades (fan la mateixa feina que farien si no formessin part del mercat laboral, amb la nica diferncia que en el mercat laboral se les remunera).

  • A.3 Crtica feministaPer tant, segons la crtica feminista, lnica manera daconseguir reduir aquestes diferncies es modificant el punt de partida, s a dir, les idees o creences socials sobre les feines que han de fer les dones i sobre la seva qualitat, productivitat o necessitat daprenentatge.

  • A.3 Crtica feminista A la societat actual la crtica feminista tindria sentit, ja que totes les feines necessiten dun aprenentatge previ sigui aquest ms tcnic o menys i, encara ms totes les feines relacionades amb la cura daltres persones: infermera, assistent social, educaci social, mestre... I, per tant, totes han de ser igualment recompensades.

  • A.3 Crtica feministaPer, quina s la realitat actual de la m dobra femenina qualificada? Actualment hi ha un major nombre de dones actives amb estudis universitaris (el 1960 menys de l1,5 per cent de les dones actives tenien estudis universitaris i el 2000 representaven ja un 20,25 per cent, mentre que els homes amb estudis universitaris representen noms un 15 per cent dels actius) tanmateix les seves condicions en el mercat de treball continuen essent inferiors a les dels homes (A Espanya, el 2000 el salari mitj anual dels treballadors era de 18.601 euros pels homes i de 14.253 per a les dones i la taxa de temporalitat era del 34,20% per a les dones i del 30,93 pels homes). Vol dir aix que les dones no sn racionals, tal i com ho defineix la teoria econmica i que, per tant, malgasten el seu temps i diners estudiant una carrera universitria que final