Capital Alternatives

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<ul><li> 1. RAISING CAPITAL A Survey of Non-Bank Sources of Capital by Dave Vance, MBA, CPA, JD Rutgers University School of BusinessCamden</li></ul> <p> 2. What is Capital? </p> <ul><li>Capital is how assets are financed </li></ul> <ul><li>Assets = Liabilities + Owners Equity </li></ul> <ul><li> Assets are all the toys we have to build a business </li></ul> <ul><li> Liabilities are other peoples money used in the business </li></ul> <ul><li>Owners Equity is our money in the business </li></ul> <ul><li>Capital can be either debt or equity </li></ul> <ul><li>(We will call ALL suppliers of capital investors, even banks) </li></ul> <p> 3. Why is Capital Needed? </p> <ul><li>Capital is needed because of timing differences. </li></ul> <ul><li>Capital is required to finance a product or service between the time it is produced and it is paid for. </li></ul> <ul><li>Capital is required to finance long term assets such as plant &amp; equipment from the time of acquisition until they generate cash. </li></ul> <ul><li>Capital is required to finance R&amp;D, product development, plant start-up &amp; marketing campaigns until they generate cash. </li></ul> <p> 4. Raising Capital </p> <ul><li>There are many non-bank sources of capital </li></ul> <ul><li>This is important because banks: </li></ul> <ul><li>Are highly risk averse </li></ul> <ul><li>due to heavy regulation and</li></ul> <ul><li>low margins </li></ul> <ul><li>Change Lending Criteria all the time </li></ul> <ul><li>shift industry preference </li></ul> <ul><li>loosen and tighten lending rules </li></ul> <ul><li>Tie borrowers up with loan covenants/gotcha clauses </li></ul> <ul><li>Are not always responsive. Even to say No!</li></ul> <p>Without Notice! 5. Control Your Destiny </p> <ul><li>If you want to take control of your destiny, you should actively seek non-bank sources of financing. </li></ul> <ul><li>Banks review their credit commitments annually, and monitor them monthly, searching for covenant violations, vigilant for a reason to cut off credit. </li></ul> <ul><li>Having an alternative will give you much more leverage with your bank. </li></ul> <ul><li>Having an alternative will give you a fall back position when your bank lets you down, delays or tries to overreach. </li></ul> <ul><li>Many companies simply dont fit the narrow historical profile that banks require. </li></ul> <p> 6. Risk / Reward / Size / Time </p> <ul><li>To close a deal for capital: </li></ul> <ul><li>The entrepreneurs or companys risk / reward / size / time profile must match that of the capital source </li></ul> <ul><li>-The capital sources risk tolerance and reward demand profile must match that of the company seeking funding </li></ul> <ul><li>The higher the risk, the greater the reward demanded. </li></ul> <ul><li>The reward of the capital source is the cost to the entrepreneur </li></ul> <ul><li>Size of transaction is a factor in selecting a capital source. </li></ul> <ul><li>The length of time you need the money must match the sources willingness to be patient.</li></ul> <p> 7. Risk / Reward / Size / Time Space </p> <ul><li>REWARDTIME </li></ul> <ul><li>SIZE </li></ul> <ul><li>Entrepreneur / Smaller Companies </li></ul> <ul><li>Financial Condition / Larger Companies </li></ul> <ul><li>RISK </li></ul> <ul><li>Stage of Development </li></ul> <p> 8. Stage of Development </p> <ul><li>-Start-up :Concept company, no sales </li></ul> <ul><li>- Early Stage :Some capital, a product, but the product has not </li></ul> <ul><li>been commercialized, no sales </li></ul> <ul><li>-Expansion : Shipping product, generating revenue, but not </li></ul> <ul><li>enough to expand, or for steady profits</li></ul> <ul><li>- Later Stage :Company is shipping product and generating </li></ul> <ul><li>enough profit to grow </li></ul> <ul><li>- Mature : The company is large and profitable and is </li></ul> <ul><li>looking for the best sources of capital </li></ul> <ul><li>- Decline : A once healthy company finds itself in trouble </li></ul> <ul><li>and in need of capital </li></ul> <p> 9. Time to Exit </p> <ul><li>Funding sources have expectations about when they will get their money back. </li></ul> <ul><li>Sources call this theTime to Exit . </li></ul> <ul><li>- Bank terms loans usually exit in 3 years </li></ul> <ul><li>- Bank line of credit exit in one year </li></ul> <ul><li>- Mortgages exit in 10 to 30 years </li></ul> <ul><li>- Stock is permanent financing because an investor never expects to get his or her money back from the company, on the other hand </li></ul> <ul><li>- Commercial paper may exit in a day </li></ul> <ul><li>A company must match its need for funds with the sources exit expectations. </li></ul> <p> 10. Transaction Size / Deal Size </p> <ul><li>Different capital sources work best over a given size range. </li></ul> <ul><li>The fixed costs of some types of capital are too high for smaller companies </li></ul> <ul><li>The deal may not be large enough to attract certain sorts of capital. </li></ul> <ul><li>-If you want to close a deal, youve got use a source that is willing to handle your size deal economically. </li></ul> <p> 11. Deal Size vs. Company Size </p> <ul><li>Deal size is often driven by company size.For purposes of discussion we will consider four size ranges. </li></ul> <ul><li>----- Revenue Range ----- </li></ul> <ul><li>Entrepreneurial / Start-up$0 to $5 million </li></ul> <ul><li>Small Businesses $5 million to $50 million </li></ul> <ul><li>Medium Businesses $50 million to $500 million </li></ul> <ul><li>Large Businesses $500 million and over. </li></ul> <p> 12. Entrepreneurial/Start-up $0 to $5 million </p> <ul><li>Bank loans require some kind of financial tract record.The problem is getting that track record without capital.The Entrepreneurs best sources are: </li></ul> <ul><li>---Typical Deal Size--- </li></ul> <ul><li>Personal Savings $1,000s to $100,000 </li></ul> <ul><li>Credit Cards $1,000s to $100,000 </li></ul> <ul><li>Home Equity Loans $10,000to $200,000 </li></ul> <ul><li>Vendors &amp; Suppliers based on credit purchases </li></ul> <ul><li>Customers based on customer advances </li></ul> <ul><li>Leases $1,000s to $100,000 </li></ul> <ul><li>Friends &amp; Family $1,000s to $100,000 </li></ul> <p> 13. Small Businesses: $5 to $50 million </p> <ul><li>For a company with a low risk profile bank loans are probably the least expensive, but they are risky. </li></ul> <ul><li>Non-bank Sources include: </li></ul> <ul><li>---Typical Deal Size--- </li></ul> <ul><li>Angel Investors $25,000 to $250,000 </li></ul> <ul><li>Factors $50,000 to $500,000 </li></ul> <ul><li>Angel Investor Groups$250,000 to $1,000,000 </li></ul> <ul><li>Small Business Investment Corp.s$600,000 to $2,700,000 </li></ul> <ul><li>Asset based lenders $100,000 to $50,000,000 </li></ul> <ul><li>Commercial credit companies $500,000 to $100, 000,000 </li></ul> <ul><li>-Small Public Offering $1,000,000 and up. </li></ul> <p> 14. Medium Businesses $50 to $500 million </p> <ul><li>Non-bank sources of capital include: </li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li><ul><li><ul><li><ul><li>---- Typical Deal Size ----- </li></ul></li></ul></li></ul></li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li>-Asset Based Lenders $1 million to$50 million</li></ul> <ul><li>-Tranche B Lenders $1 million to$50 million </li></ul> <ul><li>-Bridge Loans $1 million to$50 million </li></ul> <ul><li>-PIPES $5 million to$50 million </li></ul> <ul><li>-Venture Capital $5 million to $100 million </li></ul> <ul><li>-Mezzanine Financing $10 million to $150 million </li></ul> <ul><li>-Initial Public Offering (IPO) $50 million to$1 billion </li></ul> <ul><li>-Junk Bonds $100 million to$1 billion </li></ul> <p> 15. Large Businesses $500 million and over </p> <ul><li>Non-bank sources of financing: </li></ul> <ul><li>-----Typical Deal Size----- </li></ul> <ul><li>- Securitization $40 million to a few billion </li></ul> <ul><li>- Commercial Paper $50 million to a few billion </li></ul> <ul><li>- IPO $100 million to a few billion </li></ul> <ul><li>- Syndicated Bank Loans $150 million to a few billion </li></ul> <ul><li>- Bonds (Investment Grade) $200 million to a few billion </li></ul> <p> 16. Federal &amp; State Regulation </p> <ul><li>Raising Capital is one of the most regulated aspects of business </li></ul> <ul><li>Federal Regulation is primarily through the Securities Act of 1933 &amp; the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 </li></ul> <ul><li>Only registered securities can be sold, unless there is a statutory exception </li></ul> <ul><li>Every state regulates securities. </li></ul> <ul><li>Unless there is there is federal pre-emption, a company must comply with both state and federal securities regulation. </li></ul> <ul><li>-Raising capitalfrombanks, commercial credit companies, factors and large institutions generally isnt regulated. </li></ul> <p> 17. Characteristics of a Few Capital Sources </p> <ul><li>Angel Investors </li></ul> <ul><li>Tend to invest in start-up &amp; early stage companies</li></ul> <ul><li>In amount of $25,000 to $250,000 </li></ul> <ul><li>Often demand yields of 30%</li></ul> <ul><li>Venture Capitalists </li></ul> <ul><li>Tend to invest in later stage &amp; expansion companies</li></ul> <ul><li>In amounts of $5 million to $100 million </li></ul> <ul><li>Demand yields of 30% to 60% </li></ul> <ul><li>These capital sources only make sense for very high growth companies </li></ul> <p> 18. Four Sources for Companies $5 to $50 M </p> <ul><li>- Commercial Credit Companies </li></ul> <ul><li>- Tranche B Lenders &amp; Mezzanine Financing Companies </li></ul> <ul><li>- Small Business Investment Companies (SBICs) </li></ul> <ul><li>- Small Public Offerings </li></ul> <p> 19. Commercial Credit Companies </p> <ul><li>Commercial Credit Companies lend to companies with a less than perfect profit history. </li></ul> <ul><li>They look for assets to secure loans and often value </li></ul> <ul><li>assets higher than banks </li></ul> <ul><li>Have fewer restrictive covenants than banks </li></ul> <ul><li>Often dont require personal guarantees </li></ul> <ul><li>Interest costs are generally higher than for bank loans. </li></ul> <p> 20. Tranche B Lenders &amp; Mezzanine Financing </p> <ul><li>-There is an overlap between Tranche B lenders and Mezzanine Financing, but generally: </li></ul> <ul><li>- These lenders supplement bank lending when banks contract during recessions or because of risk aversion. </li></ul> <ul><li>- These lenders deal in debt subordinated to senior debt, usually bank debt. </li></ul> <ul><li>- They usually value assets higher than banks and lend on the difference between bank values and their values. </li></ul> <ul><li>- Because their debt is subordinated to bank debt it is more expensive.</li></ul> <ul><li>- On the other hand, they provide levels of capital banks wont</li></ul> <p> 21. Small Business Investment Companies SBICs </p> <ul><li>Small Business Investment Corporations (SBICs) are private companies chartered by the Small Business Administration </li></ul> <ul><li>They act somewhat like Venture Capital firms, with the following exceptions: </li></ul> <ul><li>They invest in early stage companies as well as later stage and expansion companies </li></ul> <ul><li>They dont demand as high a yield as Venture Capital firms do because their cost of funds is lower </li></ul> <ul><li>They favor smaller deal size: $0.6 to $2.7M vs. $6 to $100M </li></ul> <ul><li>Directories of SBICs by state are available on</li></ul> <p> 22. Small Public Offering v. Traditional IPO</p> <ul><li>Small Public Offering Traditional IPO </li></ul> <ul><li>Typical Amount: $1M to $20 M$100 M to $Bs </li></ul> <ul><li>Cost: $40 to $500 K ~ 5% to 7%</li></ul> <ul><li>Stock Sold To: Public I nstitutionalI nvestors </li></ul> <ul><li>Exempt from State Not usually Usually </li></ul> <ul><li>Regulation </li></ul> <ul><li>Most suited to: Company with Any profitable</li></ul> <ul><li>retail brand name company </li></ul> <ul><li>Audited Financials? 2 years or less 3 years </li></ul> <p> 23. Small Public Offering v. Private Placement </p> <ul><li>Small Public Offering Private Placement </li></ul> <ul><li>Advertise? Yes w/disclosure No </li></ul> <ul><li>Who can invest? Anyone Accredited investors </li></ul> <ul><li>&amp; limited # of others </li></ul> <ul><li>Stock Resalable? Yes No. Resale restricted </li></ul> <ul><li>Liquidity? Fair Little liquidity </li></ul> <ul><li>Can be listed Yes No. </li></ul> <p> 24. Problems With Small Public Offering </p> <ul><li>-Must comply with state law in every state where offered,but</li></ul> <ul><li> Most small public offerings are sold in limited number of </li></ul> <ul><li>states </li></ul> <ul><li> States coordinate their review </li></ul> <ul><li> NASAA has guidelines to facilitate review </li></ul> <ul><li>- Offering company must take substantial responsibility to sell the stock </li></ul> <ul><li> This is less of a problem for retail firm with a good </li></ul> <ul><li>brand name </li></ul> <ul><li> There are companies &amp; brokers who will help you sell </li></ul> <p> 25. Small Public Offering Advantages </p> <ul><li>Less dependence on banks, who tie firms up with restrictive covenants; change lending rules; and re-evaluate risk annually. </li></ul> <ul><li>Less dependent on private equity investors who demand high returns which translates into a substantial portion of a firms equity. </li></ul> <ul><li>Liquidity for the owner / entrepreneur.</li></ul> <ul><li>Customers who invest see themselves as stakeholders &amp; there is some evidence that they buy more. </li></ul> <ul><li>But.. A small public offering wont work unless a company is growing and profitable. </li></ul> <p> 26. What About Companies In Trouble? </p> <ul><li>Not every company is sweetness and light. </li></ul> <ul><li>Some are in such serious trouble they can forget banks and some are in so much trouble that </li></ul> <ul><li>Commercial lenders wont go near them. </li></ul> <ul><li>So whats a company to do? </li></ul> <p> 27. Four Options for Troubled Companies </p> <ul><li>Asset Based Lenders </li></ul> <ul><li>Debtor in Possession Super Priority Loan </li></ul> <ul><li>Securitization and </li></ul> <ul><li>Private Investment in Public Entities (PIPES) </li></ul> <p> 28. Asset Based Lenders </p> <ul><li>Lend against the value of a companys assets. </li></ul> <ul><li>Unlike banks, they dont: </li></ul> <ul><li>- care about profitability or cash flow. </li></ul> <ul><li>- tie a company up with restrictive covenants, and</li></ul> <ul><li>- require personal guarantees. </li></ul> <ul><li>They do care about: </li></ul> <ul><li>the quality of assets </li></ul> <ul><li>Maintaining the assets in good and marketable condition </li></ul> <p> 29. Debtor in Possession Super Priority Loan </p> <ul><li>When a company files for Chapter 11 bankruptcy (reorganization), that doesnt mean that all financing is cut off. </li></ul> <ul><li>Courts recognize that new capital may be necessary for a company to reorganize. </li></ul> <ul><li>A bankrupt company can apply to the court for a debtor in possession loan, and if approved, the lender will get a super-priority over other unsecured creditors. </li></ul> <ul><li>There are companies that specialize in such super-priority loans. </li></ul> <p> 30. Securitization </p> <ul><li>Securitization is a way for a company with a troubled credit history to raise capital at the same cost as A rated companies. </li></ul> <ul><li>For securitization to work, a company must have a large block of assets that will produce cash flow over a period of years. </li></ul> <ul><li>Examples include: installment sales contracts, leases, mortgages or credit card accounts. </li></ul> <ul><li>Assets are sold to a Special Purpose Vehicle (SPV), an independent corporation set up by the company.</li></ul> <p> 31. Securitization - continued </p> <ul><li>The SPV then sells bonds, backed by the cash generating assets, to pay off the company originating the assets. </li></ul> <ul><li>Because the SPV is independent of the company generating the assets, its credit rating is solely dependent on the quality of its assets, not any liabilities or other trouble the asset generating company may have. </li></ul> <ul><li>With an excellent credit rating the SPV can access bond and securities markets for capital at low cost.It passes that savings back to the company that originated the assets by paying close to face value for them.</li></ul> <p> 32. Private Investment in Public Entities (PIPES) </p> <ul><li>A PIPE only works for a listed, publicly traded company with stock price above about $3 per share. </li></ul> <ul><li>PIPE investors make private equity investments in publicly traded companies.Such investments dont have to be registered with the SEC, and paperwork is minimal. </li></ul> <ul><li>The PIPE investor negotiates a conversion feature to the companys publicly traded stock at less than market rates. </li></ul> <ul><li>The stock resulting from the conversion is then registered and the PIPE investor exits their investment by selling the stock they acquired at less than market price at market price. The difference becomes their fee. </li></ul> <p> 33. There are more things in heaven and earth than are dreamt of in your philosophies. ~ Hamlet, Act I, scene i </p> <ul><li>What weve seen is a small sample of the alternatives to banks. </li></ul> <ul><li>There is a strategy for finding, capturing and making the most out of each of these sources </li></ul> <ul><li>The key is to find the right capital source for your companys risk, reward, size and time to exit. </li></ul> <p> 34. Thats All Folks!</p>