Cancer vaccine

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<p>Slide 1</p> <p>z1</p> <p>CANCER VACCINES:A novel approach to cancer.</p> <p>my3</p> <p>TOPICS OF THE DAY:IntroductionCancer statisticsImmunotherapyCancer vaccinesTypes of cancer vaccinesConclusion233Acancer vaccineis avaccinethat treats existingcanceror prevents the development of cancer in certain high-risk individuals. Vaccines that treat existing cancer are known as therapeuticcancer vaccines. Sometypes of cancer, such ascervical cancerand someliver cancers, are caused by oncoviruses.Scientists have also been trying to develop vaccines against existing cancers. INTRODUCTION:CANCER STATISTICS:4IMMUNOTHERAPY:5Immunotherapyis treatment that uses your body's own immune system to help fight cancer.Considered by many to be the fourth modality of cancer treatment after chemotherapy, radiation, and surgery.Based on utilizing the patients immune system to fight the cancer.Cancer vaccines fall under this category of treatment.</p> <p>CANCER VACCINES:6Majority used for treatment not prevention.</p> <p>May offer method that can enhance the immune response against cancer.</p> <p>Cancer Vaccines: Different than HPV vaccine and traditional prophylactic vaccines.</p> <p>HPV Vaccine: Immunity to the virus causing cervical cancer. Traditional prophylactic vaccines: As with the HPV vaccine, provide immunity to a particular disease.</p> <p>At this time, cancer vaccines are only available in clinical trials.</p> <p>TYPES OF CANCER VACCINES:7Types of Cancer VaccinesDendritic cell vaccinesAntigen vaccinesTumour cell vaccineDNA vaccineAnti idiotype vaccineDendritic Cell Vaccines:8Dendritic cells can be generated outside of the body.</p> <p>Dendritic cells are made capable of recognizing antigen by gene therapy and exposure to antigen.</p> <p>Dendritic cells are made capable of recognizing antigen by gene therapy and exposure to antigen.</p> <p> These vaccines are being studied in:9prostatemelanoma breastlung colorectalleukemiakidneyAntigen Vaccines:</p> <p>10This includes peptide vaccines: only one specific epitope is injected.</p> <p>Vast amounts of antigen can be created in laboratories. Some antigens are specific for a certain type of cancer; others may induce an immune response in several cancers.</p> <p>These vaccines are being studied in:11 11prostatemelanoma breastovarian colorectalpancreatickidneyAnti-Idiotype Vaccines:12Based on the idea that antibodies can also act as antigens triggering an immune response. This idea would be used to create a vaccine in which the antibodies (which resemble the cancer cells) would be injected into the cancer patient eliciting an immune response.</p> <p>Primary target is LYMPHOMA.</p> <p>DNA Vaccine:</p> <p>13Introduction of tumor genes instead of tumor antigen itself.</p> <p>Cells in the body take up the injected DNA. Specific antigens would then be made on a continuous basis.</p> <p>The idea of these vaccines is that the body would be provided with a constant supply of antigens to allow the immune response to continue against the cancer. </p> <p>14prostatemelanoma headneck leukemia THESE VACCINES ARE BEING STUDIED IN:TUMOR CELL VACCINES:15</p> <p>Utilizes whole tumor cells rendered safe by irradiation.</p> <p>Specific immune response initiated when injected into body.</p> <p>Body attacks similar cells that remain in body.</p> <p>Autologous: removed tumor cells from patients own body.</p> <p>Allogenic:removed tumor cells from someone other than the patient.</p> <p>Many different epitopes are recognized.</p> <p>1617lungmelanoma breastovarian colorectalpancreatickidney THESE VACCINES ARE BEING STUDIED IN:OncoVAX by Intracel:18Autologous vaccine for Stage II colon cancer.</p> <p>Received fast-track status from FDA in 2006.</p> <p>STUDY: 254 patients received either OncoVAX or placebo.</p> <p>Improves 5-year survival and recurrence-free interval.</p> <p>57.1% relative risk reduction.</p> <p>Sipuleucel-T (Provenge) by Dendreon:19</p> <p>Asymptomatic Androgen-Independent Prostate Cancer (AIPC).TARGET:20Target-prostatic Acid Phosphatase (PAP), which is found in 95% of prostate cancers.STUDY OF PROVENGE VS. PLACEBO:98 men with AIPC.3.3 month or 21% improvement in median survival.3-YEAR FOLLOW-UP: </p> <p>32% of men that receivedProvenge alive compared to21% placebo.</p> <p> 52% increase in survival rate.</p> <p>Lung Cancer Vaccine at UK:</p> <p>21Dendritic cell vaccine.</p> <p>Study: Patients with Stage IA to IIIB were given vaccine.Patients treated prior with surgery, chemoradiation.</p> <p>CONCLUSION:May be more effective in cancers that are not advanced.</p> <p>Clinically not yet at our fingertips.</p> <p>Much progress has been made in this area of research.</p> <p>More research still needs to be done including larger studies.</p> <p>Researchers are actively trying to overcome hurdles in the making of these vaccines.</p> <p>Could make a big impact on our approach to cancer. Most importantly these vaccines could mean better quality of life and longer survival for our patients!!</p> <p>22BOTTOM LINE:A whole new front, in the war of cancer.</p> <p>23</p> <p>24</p> <p>Queries25THANK YOUPRESENTED BY,K.SUNITA MAITHREYE.</p>

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