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  • California Commercial Saturation Survey

    Prepared for California Public Utilities Commission

    Itron, Inc. 11236 El Camino Real

    San Diego, California 92130

    (858) 724-2620

    August 26, 2014

  • Legal Notice This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by the California Public Utilities Commission. It does not necessarily represent the views of the Commission or any of its employees except to the extent, if any, that it has formally been approved by the Commission at a public meeting. For information regarding any such action, communicate directly with the Commission at 505 Van Ness Avenue, San Francisco, California 94102. Neither the Commission nor the State of California, nor any officer, employee, or any of its contractors or subcontractors makes any warrant, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability whatsoever for the contents of this document.

  • Table of Contents

    Executive Summary ........................................................................................... ES-1 ES.1 Introduction ........................................................................................... ES-1 ES.2 Sample Design and CSS Recruitment .................................................. ES-3 ES.3 Summary of CSS On-Site Survey Results ............................................ ES-4

    ES.3.1 CSS Business Characteristics ............................................................................... ES-5 ES.3.2 CSS Lighting .......................................................................................................... ES-7 ES.3.3 CSS HVAC .......................................................................................................... ES-14 ES.3.4 CSS Televisions .................................................................................................. ES-18 ES.3.5 CSS Office Equipment ......................................................................................... ES-20 ES.3.6 CSS Refrigeration ................................................................................................ ES-21 ES.3.7 CSS Energy Management Systems .................................................................... ES-23 ES.3.8 CSS Distributed Generation ................................................................................ ES-24

    ES.4 CSS Conclusions and Recommendations .......................................... ES-25 ES.4.1 Energy Intensities ................................................................................................ ES-25 ES.4.2 Lighting ................................................................................................................ ES-25 ES.4.3 Other End-uses.................................................................................................... ES-25 ES.4.4 Additional Research Opportunities Building on Data Collected .......................... ES-26

    1 Introduction ........................................................................................................ 1-1 2 Commercial Saturation Survey Objectives ...................................................... 2-1

    2.1 Telephone Survey Research Objectives ..................................................... 2-1 2.2 Commercial Market Share Tracking Research Objectives .......................... 2-1 2.3 Commercial Saturation Survey Research Objectives ................................. 2-2

    2.3.1 Comparison of the CSS and CMST ........................................................................... 2-3 2.3.2 Comparison of CSS and Commercial End Use Survey Objectives ........................... 2-4 2.3.3 CSS Business Characteristics .................................................................................. 2-11 2.3.4 CSS Commercial Lighting ........................................................................................ 2-12 2.3.5 CSS Commercial Televisions ................................................................................... 2-13 2.3.6 CSS Office Equipment ............................................................................................. 2-13 2.3.7 CSS Refrigeration..................................................................................................... 2-14 2.3.8 CSS Commercial HVAC ........................................................................................... 2-15 2.3.9 CSS Energy Management Systems ......................................................................... 2-16 2.3.10 CSS Distributed Generation Systems .................................................................... 2-16

    3 CSS Approach, Sample, and Weighting ........................................................... 3-1 3.1 Sample Design ........................................................................................... 3-1

    3.1.1 CSS/CMST Telephone Survey Sample Design ......................................................... 3-1 3.2 On-Site Recruitment ................................................................................... 3-2 3.3 CSS On-Site Sample Design ...................................................................... 3-3 3.4 On-Site Weighting Methodology ................................................................. 3-9

    4 Business Characteristics .................................................................................. 4-1 4.1 CSS Study Domain Overview ..................................................................... 4-1

    Itron, Inc. i Table of Contents

  • California Commercial Saturation Survey Report

    4.2 Electricity Consumption by CSS Business Type ......................................... 4-6 4.2.1 Electricity Consumption by Business Size ............................................................... 4-11 4.2.2 Electricity Consumption by CSS Business Type and Business Size ....................... 4-12 4.2.3 Electricity Consumption by CSS Business Type and Utility ..................................... 4-14

    4.3 Business Type Floor Space ...................................................................... 4-15 4.3.1 Business Square Footage by Business Size ........................................................... 4-17 4.3.2 Business Square Footage and by Business Type and Business Size ..................... 4-18 4.3.3 Business Square Footage and Utility ....................................................................... 4-19 4.3.4 Conditioned Business Square Footage .................................................................... 4-21

    4.4 Business Energy Intensity ......................................................................... 4-23 4.4.1 Energy Intensities for Disaggregated Business Types............................................. 4-26 4.4.2 Business Energy Intensity by Size ........................................................................... 4-28 4.4.3 Business Energy Intensity by Utility ......................................................................... 4-30

    4.5 Business Characteristics ........................................................................... 4-31 4.6 Building Information .................................................................................. 4-36

    4.6.1 Number of Buildings ................................................................................................. 4-36 4.6.2 Building Age ............................................................................................................. 4-39 4.6.3 Exterior and Building Envelope Characteristics ....................................................... 4-42

    5 Commercial Lighting Equipment ...................................................................... 5-1 5.1 Introduction ................................................................................................. 5-1

    5.1.1 Lighting Equipment Overview ..................................................................................... 5-1 5.2 Data Sources .............................................................................................. 5-1 5.3 Indoor Lighting Analysis .............................................................................. 5-3

    5.3.1 Aggregate Indoor Lighting Saturations ....................................................................... 5-4 5.3.2 Aggregate Indoor Lighting Analysis.......................................................................... 5-14

    5.4 Linear Lighting .......................................................................................... 5-18 5.4.1 General Saturation and Density ............................................................................... 5-19 5.4.2 Saturations by Performance Group .......................................................................... 5-25 5.4.3 Comparison with 2006 CEUS Study ........................................................................ 5-41 5.4.4 Burnt Out Linear Lamps ........................................................................................... 5-44 5.4.5 Inoperable Linear Fixtures ........................................................................................ 5-47 5.4.6 Linear Lamps in Storage .......................................................................................... 5-50 5.4.7 Linear Ballasts .......................................................................................................... 5-53

    5.5 Incandescent, CFL, LED, and Halogen Lamps ......................................... 5-56 5.5.1 General Saturation and Density ............................................................................... 5-57 5.5.2 Saturati

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