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CADOGAN CHESS BOOKS
Mastering the Endgame Volume 2: Closed Games
Cadogan Chess Books
Executive Editor: PAUL LAMFORD
Adviser: MAL COLM PEIN, 1M
Russian Series Editor: KEN NEAT
Some other endgame books:
Chess Endings: Essential Knowledge
Comprehensive Chess Endings
Volume 1: Bishop Endings, Knight Endings
A verbakh & Chekhover
Volume 2: Bishop against Knight Endings, Rook against Minor Piece Endings Averbakh
Volume 3: Queen and Pawn Endings, Queen against Rook Endings, Queen against Minor Piece Endings
Averbakh, Henkin & Chekhover
Volume 4: Pawn Endings
A verbakh & Maizelis
Volume 5: Rook Endings Averbakh & Kopayev
Mastering the Endgame, Volume 1
Shereshevsky & Slutsky
Rate Your Endgame
Mednis & Crouch
For a complete catalogue of Cadogan Chess Books (which includes the former
Pergamon and Maxwell Macmillan chess lists), please write to:
Cadogan Books, 38 Warren Street, London WIP 5PD Tel: 071 388 241 0 Fax: 071 388 2407
Mastering the Endgame Volume 2:
Closed Games by
M.I.Shereshevsky & L.M.Slutsky Translated and Edited by
CADOGAN BOOKS DISTRIBUTION
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USA/CANADA/LATIN AMERICA/JAPAN Distribution: Macmillan Distribution Center, Front & Brown Streets, Riverside, New Jersey 08075, USA. Tel: (609) 461 6500; Fax: (609) 764
© 1992 Mikhail Shereshevsky, Leonid Slutsky
All Rights Reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored
in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means: electronic,
electrostatic, magnetic tape, mechanical, photocopying, recording or
otherwise, without permission in writing from the publisher.
First published 1992
Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
British Library Cataloguing in Publication Data
A CIP catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library
ISBN 0 08 037784X
Cover by Pintail Design
Printed in Great Britain by B PCC Wheatons Ltd, Exeter
Dark-Square Strategy Variations with the Central Exchange dxe5
Pawn Wedge in the Centre
The Exchange ... exd4
Attack on the White Centre with ... c5
2 Light-Square Strategy
3 Symmetry Open Centre
Closed Centre: the Exchange cxd5 cxd5
The Exchange dxc5
4 Asymmetry Central/Kingside Majority against Queenside Majority
Maroczy Bind Formation
Andersson (Hedgehog) Formation
Transformation of the Isolani
Backward and Hanging Pawns
The Two Bishops
The Catalan Bishop
Index of Games Index of Openings
1 1 8 1 1 8 132 140
149 149 173 1 84 194 207 2 17 227
When working on the second volume of this book, the authors decided to change the order in which the material is presented. In games begun with the open and semi-open openings, the endgame for a long time retains its individuality ; thus one does not confuse a Sicilian endgame with a Ruy Lopez, or a Caro-Kann endgame with one from Petroffs Defence. I n the closed openings things are more complicated. [n many of them identical pawn structures arise and, for example, openings so dissimilar in spirit as the Queen's Gambit and the Grunfeld Defence can lead to analogous endings.
The strategy of systematic pressure, carried out by W hite in the closed openings, can be opposed by Black with various means of counterplay. In principle, all the various closed openings can be arbitrarily divided into two parts : in the first Black allows the creation of a white pawn centre , while in the second he actively prevents this. Methods used by modern theory in the struggle with the enemy centre include impeding it with pawns (King's I ndian set-ups) and piece pressure ( Grunfeld Defence). B lack can also oppose the creation of a pawn centre in different ways - 'physically' (Queen's Gambit set-ups) and by piece pressure on the light squares (Nimzo-Indian, Queen's Indian and Dutch Defences). It was this that led to the plan ofthe second volume: to present all the material not by opening classification, but in accordance with the strategy of the struggle for the centre.
The reader will rightly notice the relatively large number of 'King's I ndian' endings, presented in the ' Dark-Square Strategy' section. The King's Indian Defence occurs increasingly rarely in top-level tournaments . The charm of its novelty has largely been lost, whereas the degree of risk has grown several-fold. White has a wide range of possibilities for developing his initiative - from direct play 'for mate' in the Samisch Variation to 'emasculating's set-ups with the exchange on e5 . By including in the book some King's I ndian clashes from the 1 950s and 1 960s, the authors wanted to recall the happy times of the King's Indian Defence, when it was called 'the main contemporary opening problem' . ( In recent years , however, thanks to the successes of the World Champion, there is a justification for talking of another burst in popularity of the King's I ndian Defence.)
The chapters 'Light-Square Strategy', 'Symmetry' and 'Asymmetry' are not so extensive, but in our opinion they will give the reader an impression of the link between the chosen opening strategy and the resulting ending.
In the closed openings, Black from the very first moves has to solve the problem of fighting for the centre . In all the diversity of the closed openings, two basic strategies for Black can be traced: either he allows the formation of an enemy pawn centre , or else he does everything possible to prevent it. In the first case, exploiting the time spent by White on the formation of his centre, Black strikes a blow at the weakest point - the d4
pawn - by . . . e5 or . . . c5 , with subsequent play on the dark squares . This has been given the name of dark-square strategy.
[n practice the second path can be carried out in two ways : by the classical blocking of the d4 pawn ( 1 d4 d5 2 c4 e6), or by piece pressure on the light squares ( 1 d4 tDf6 2 c4 e6 3 tDc3 iLb4, or 3 tDf3 b6 etc) . This latter example typifies light-square strategy.
To reduce the original manuscript to a manageable size for publication, several games have had to be omitted. Where they are readily available in other books currently in print, this has been indicated in the text - it is recommended that these games be studied in conjuction with the appropriate chapter.
1 Dark-Square Strategy
Dark-square strategy is mainly repre sented by I ndian ( i .e . King's I ndian and Benoni) set-ups, which in recent times have occurred rather rarely in top- level tournaments. There are many reasons for this, the main one being White's advantage in space. But the possession of more space demands additional care in maintaining it, and in the resulting complex positions a slight inaccuracy by White will allow the opponent to develop a dangerous counterattack. Indian set-ups have brought a number of striking victories to players such as Boleslavsky, Bronstein, Geller, Tal, Gligoric, Stein, Fischer and Kasparov.
Black usually aims to realise his counter chances in the middlegame, since with simplification W hite's spatial advantage becomes increasingly perceptible. This does not mean t hat any I ndian ending is bad for Black, but in general White's prospects are more favourable .
Black's counterblow against the d4 pawn by . . . e5 or . . . c5 can lead to positions with various pawn structures. In reply to . . . e5 (or . . . c5) White can choose three different methods of play: he can advance his d-pawn, exchange on e5 (c5), or maintain the tension in the centre. These are schematically depicted in the three diagrams above.
2 Mastering the Endgame II
Usually Black is not able to maintain the central tension for long, and then the exchange . . . exd4 leads to the following pawn formation:
Positions with the exchange dxc5 are considered in the 'Symmetry' section, and those with the exchange . . . cxd4 under the 'Maroczy Bind' .
1.1 VARIATIONS WITH THE CENTRAL EXCHANGE dxe5
Any player choosing King' s I ndian set ups as Black must be able to handle competently the endings arising after the central exchange dxe5 followed by the exchange of queens. There are a number of masters who as White often solve in this way the problem of the King's I ndian Defence, especially since in many opening positions dxe5 is the best move.
By what is White guided when he chooses the 'unpretentious' exchange in the centre? After all, the drawbacks here are patently obvious . Back in the 1 930s it was observed that the exchange of queens on the 5th move (after 1 d4 liJf6 2 c4 d6 3
liJc3 e5 4 dx