cadet instructors handbook - knots and lashings, 2012

Download Cadet Instructors Handbook - Knots and Lashings, 2012

Post on 10-Nov-2014

108 views

Category:

Documents

2 download

Embed Size (px)

DESCRIPTION

Knots and Lashings, 2012 Cadet Instructors Handbook

TRANSCRIPT

AAC CADET INSTRUCTORS HANDBOOK KNOTS & LASHINGS2012

THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY BLANK

AAC Cadet Instructors Handbook Knots and Lashings May 2012

i

PREFACEAim 1. The aim of this publication is to provide Cadet Instructors with the information to conduct a lesson on knots and lashings. While this is currently not a Training Objective, it supports several of the fieldcraft lessons in the Cadet Unit Training TMP, 2002. These knots also satisfy the requirement for the Adventure Training Award. Level 2. This publication is not the source document however it is to be used as the reference for cadet fieldcraft training.

Gender 3. Words importing gender refer to both male and female unless specifically stated otherwise.

References 4. There are many examples on the web that demonstrate tying knots. Some are:

http://www.2020site.org/knots/ http://www.animatedknots.com/index.php?LogoImage=LogoGrog.jpg&Website=www.animatedknots.com http://www.animatedknots.com/indexscouting.php

AMENDMENTS1. The following amendments have been made to this publication.

Amendment List Number Date 1 May 12

Amended By (Print Name and Initials) Reprint

Date of Amending

ii

THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY BLANK

AAC Cadet Instructors Handbook Knots and Lashings May 2012

iiiCONTENTS

Page Preface Contents i iii Paragraph Cordage Care of cordage Storage Coiling cordage Whipping Knots The thumb knot The reef knot The granny knot The sheet bend The double sheet bend The timber hitch The clove hitch The round turn and two half hitches The draw hitch The bowline The fishermans bend The fishermans knot The sheep shank The truckies hitch The stopper hitch The rolling hitch Splicing The eye splice The back splice Lashings Square lashing Diagonal lashing 1.01 1.02 1.03 1.04 1.09 1.10 1.11 1.12 1.13 1.14 1.15 1.16 1.17 1.18 1.19 1.20 1.21 1.22 1.23 1.24 1.25 1.26 1.27 1.29 1.30 1.31 1.33 1.34

AAC Cadet Instructors Handbook Knots and Lashings May 2012

iv

THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY BLANK

AAC Cadet Instructors Handbook Knots and Lashings May 2012

KNOTS AND LASHINGS Types of cordage 1.01 The synthetic fibres used in rope manufacture are made from plastic materials and are stronger, though more elastic, than vegetable fibres. The synthetic fibre ropes most often used are: a. Nylon. Nylon rope is the most common synthetic fibre cordage in service use. It has the highest strength factor of all cordage but is also the most elastic. It is difficult to untie after strain has been applied, and care should be taken in the choice of knots. Polyester. Polyester rope is second in strength to nylon but is not so elastic. Unlike most other synthetics, it is very resistant to the effects of sunlight and for this reason is well suited for use in exposed positions, such as tie down ropes on vehicle canopies. Polypropylene. Polypropylene rope is not widely used in service. It is similar in strength to polyester but, unlike the majority of synthetics, has the advantage that it will float on water.

b.

c.

Care of cordage 1.02 The strength and useful life of cordage will be reduced considerably by improper care. Synthetic fibre is sensitive to heat and can be damaged by friction. All cordage deteriorates through long exposure to sunlight and is reduced in strength by sharp bends, kinks and sudden or snapping stresses. The fibres of cordage can be easily worn or cut by rubbing on sharp edges. Similarly, if grit works its way between the fibres, it will act as an internal abrasive. Cordage must be stored correctly, handled carefully and inspected frequently. Storage 1.03 It should be stored in a cool dry place with adequate ventilation and away from fumes such as paint, fuel etc. It must be dry when stored. Coiling cordage 1.04 Before returning cordage to the store it should be wound onto a spool or formed into a loose coil as illustrated below in figure 1.

Figure 1: Rolling Cordage

Also see:

http://www.ehow.com/video_4956121_coil-rope.html

AAC Cadet Instructors Handbook Knots and Lashings May 2012

1.05 How to Roll Cables. There are many things that need to be rolled up for storage or convenience. These include coaxial cable, garden hoses, electrical leads and rope. Many people just coil it over their arms, in their hands or even on the ground. Invariably, it develops twists and kinks which become worse over time. See http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MziOBf60Kn0&feature=related 1.06 To avoid these problems, there is a method of coiling the rope or cable that does not produce kinks and twists and makes it much easier to lay/run it out. It uses a normal coil and then an underhanded coil. This counters the twist developed in the normal coil. 1.07 It takes a little practice to perfect the method but once achieved, you will wonder why you ever had difficulty doing it! To unroll, you simply hold one end and throw the coils out along the ground. The only downside to this idea is if you lay the coil on the ground and then try to run the end out. It tends to tangle. 1.08 Once a cable has developed kinks in it, it is sometimes difficult to remove them. The best way to start rolling is to lay the cable all the way out on the ground and roll from one end. Watch the web videos to see how to do it. http://www.ehow.com/video_4435717_roll-audio-cables-prevent-tangles.html http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0yPcJD7RVuY http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ccGwO8BisjU

Whipping 1.09 Unless prevented in some way, the ends of cordage will unravel. A simple knot can sometimes be used to prevent this but, for permanent work, all loose ends must be bound with twine. This is called whipping.

Figure 2: Whipping a Rope Also see: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YMq9KdOtSJ0

AAC Cadet Instructors Handbook Knots and Lashings May 2012

Knots 1.10 Knots, which include bends and hitches, are used to join two ropes together, to form a loop rope, to make a stop on a rope or to secure a rope to spars, hoops and rings. The most useful knots for general work in the field are described in the following paragraphs. The standing part of a rope is the end which cannot be worked because it is fixed or in use; this end is marked S in the diagrams. The running end of a rope is the end with which the knot is tied and is marked R in the diagrams. 1.11 The Thumb Knot. The thumb knot is used to give a temporary finish to the end of the rope, which has not been whipped, to prevent it from fraying, or to provide a stop to prevent a rope from slipping through a block or small ring. The thumb knot is illustrated in figure 3.

Figure 3: The Thumb Knot

1.12 The Reef Knot. The reef knot is used to join two ropes of equal, or approximately equal circumference. It is illustrated in figure 4.

Figure 4: The Reef Knot

AAC Cadet Instructors Handbook Knots and Lashings May 2012

1.13 The Granny and Thief Knots. Granny and thief knots look like a reef knot, but neither of these is safe as they will slip when a strain is put on both ropes. These knots are illustrated in figure 5.

Figure 5: The Granny and Thief knot

1.14 The Sheet Bend. The sheet bend is used to join two ropes of unequal size, as illustrated in figure 6.

Figure 6: The Sheet Bend 1.15 The Double Sheet Bend. The double sheet bend is used for the same purpose as the single sheet bend, but is easy to undo. It is used to fasten rope to an awkwardly placed ring, so a large loop may be formed and the knot made more accessible. It does not jam as does the round turn and two half hitches, or the fishermen's bend. It is illustrated in figure 7.

Figure 7: The Double Sheet Bend AAC Cadet Instructors Handbook Knots and Lashings May 2012

1.16 The Timber Hitch. The timber hitch is a useful knot when you need to use the rope to pull a weight, such as a log. The heavier the pull on the rope, the tighter the knot will grip, but it will not jam and may be undone easily. This knot is illustrated in figure 8.

Figure 8: The Timber Hitch

1.17 The Clove Hitch. The clove hitch is used for securing a rope to a spar or pole or when making a lashing. This knot is illustrated in figure 9.

Figure 9: The Clove Hitch

AAC Cadet Instructors Handbook Knots and Lashings May 2012

1.18 The Round Turn and Two Half Hitches. This knot is used for making a rope fast to an anchorage. A similar knot is the fishermen's bend, which is more secure and will not work loose when there is a give and take motion on the rope; eg, when making fast a rope to an anchor. This knot is illustrated in figure 10.

Figure 10: A Round Turn and Two Half Hitches

1.19 Draw Hitch. The draw hitch is used to tie a rope to a ring or post. It is released by pull on the running end. This knot is illustrated in figure 11.

Figure 11: Draw Hitch

Also see:

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xJu9XqMZFJw http://www.marinews.com/bait-presentation/draw-hitch/718/

AAC Cadet Instructors Handbook Knots and Lashings May 2012

1.20 The Bowline. The bowline forms a single loop in cordage that will not tighten or slip under strain but is easily untied.

Figure 12: The Bowline 1.21 The Fishermans Bend. The fishermans bend is used to make fast a rope on which there is a give and take motion., eg, securing a boat to a post or tying a fishing hook onto a line. It is similar to the round turn and two half hitches except that the first half hitch is taken through the round turn. See figure below.

Figure 13: The Fishermans Bend Also see: http://www.animatedknots.com/doublefishermans/index.php http://www.2020site.org/knots/fishermensbend.html

AAC Cadet Instructors Handbook Knots and Lashings May 2012

1.22 Fishermans knot. The

Recommended

View more >