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<p>Shell&amp;Tube Thermal Design of Shell &amp; Tube Heat Exchangers</p> <p>Page 1 of 47</p> <p>Shell&amp;Tube Thermal Design of Shell &amp; Tube Heat ExchangersShell&amp;Tube Input Shell&amp;Tube Results</p> <p>Shell&amp;Tube Getting Started Guide</p> <p>Shell and Tube Heat Exchanger Geometry</p> <p>Quick Guide to Geometry Selection</p> <p>Shell&amp;Tube InputProblem Definition Headings/Remarks Application Options Calculation Mode, Fluid allocation, Application Types, Equipment Types Process Data Temperatures, Pressures, Flows, Quality, Pressure Drops, Fouling, Heat Load</p> <p>Physical Property Data Stream Composition Stream Properties Property Databanks, Stream Definition, Property Tables</p> <p>Exchanger Geometry Geometry Summary Geometry, Tube Layout Shell/Heads/Flanges/Tubesheets Shell/Heads, Covers, Tubesheets, Flanges</p> <p>file://C:\Documents and Settings\Asim\Local Settings\Temp\~hhA90D.htm</p> <p>6/3/2010</p> <p>Shell&amp;Tube Thermal Design of Shell &amp; Tube Heat Exchangers</p> <p>Page 2 of 47</p> <p>Tubes Tube, Low Fins, Longitudinal Fins, Inserts, KHT Twisted Tubes Baffles/Supports Baffles, Tube Supports, Longitudinal Baffles, Variable Baffle Pitches Bundle Layout Layout Parameters, Layout Limits/Pass Lanes, Tie Rods/Spacers, Tube Layout Nozzles Shell Side Nozzles, Tube Side Nozzles, Domes/Belts, Impingement Thermosiphon Piping Thermosiphon Piping, Inlet Piping Elements, Outlet Piping Elements</p> <p>Construction Specifications Materials of Construction Vessel Materials, Cladding/Gasket Materials, Tube Properties Design Specifications</p> <p>Program Options Design Options Geometry Options, Geometry Limits, Process Limits, Optimization Options Thermal Analysis Heat Transfer, Pressure Drop, Delta T, Fouling Methods/Correlations General, Condensation, Vaporization, Enhancement Data Calculation Options Calculation Options</p> <p>Shell&amp;Tube Problem DefinitionThe Problem Definition section includes the following screens: Headings/Remarks Application Options Process Data</p> <p>Shell&amp;Tube Headings/RemarksThe Headings/Remarks section includes the following screens: TEMA Specification Sheet Descriptions</p> <p>file://C:\Documents and Settings\Asim\Local Settings\Temp\~hhA90D.htm</p> <p>6/3/2010</p> <p>Shell&amp;Tube Thermal Design of Shell &amp; Tube Heat Exchangers</p> <p>Page 3 of 47</p> <p>Shell&amp;Tube Application OptionsThe Application Options screen contains the following inputs:</p> <p>General Calculation Mode Location of Hot Fluid Select Geometry based on this Dimensional Standard Calculation Method</p> <p>Hot Side Application Condenser Type Simulation Calculation</p> <p>Cold Side Application Vaporizer Type Simulation Calculation Thermosiphon Circuit Calculation</p> <p>Shell&amp;Tube Process DataThe Process Data screen contains the following inputs:</p> <p>file://C:\Documents and Settings\Asim\Local Settings\Temp\~hhA90D.htm</p> <p>6/3/2010</p> <p>Shell&amp;Tube Thermal Design of Shell &amp; Tube Heat Exchangers</p> <p>Page 4 of 47</p> <p>Fluid Name Mass Flow Rate Temperature Vapor Mass Fraction Operating Pressure Pressure at Liquid Surface in Column Heat Exchanged Adjust if Over-Specified Estimated Pressure Drop Allowable Pressure Drop Fouling Resistance</p> <p>Physical Property Data OverviewFor each stream within the exchanger there are two input sections: Composition Properties</p> <p>Within the Composition section, the Physical Property Package (Properties Data Source) can be selected.</p> <p>The following property package options are available: Aspen Properties COMThermo B-JAC Databank User Specified Properties</p> <p>file://C:\Documents and Settings\Asim\Local Settings\Temp\~hhA90D.htm</p> <p>6/3/2010</p> <p>Shell&amp;Tube Thermal Design of Shell &amp; Tube Heat Exchangers</p> <p>Page 5 of 47</p> <p>Two other options are shown to indicate when the properties data have been generated by a process simulator. These are not facilities for generating properties with the stand-alone program: Aspen Plus HYSYS</p> <p>The selection of the property package will dictate what subsequent inputs are requested and what screens may be displayed. The property package input will indicate where physical properties have come from or where they will be coming from. The basic physical properties will consist of one to five data sets of stream properties at various temperature points which should encompass the operating temperatures of the exchanger. Each data set would represent a different operating pressure. It is recommended that multiple data sets at different pressure be used for applications involving changes of phase or gas only since the pressure change through an exchanger can significantly impact the properties and heat release curves for these applications. Data at two pressures are adequate for most exchangers, with more only needed when the pressure change in the exchanger is a significant fraction of the inlet pressure. The Properties section includes the following screens: Properties Phase Composition Component Properties Properties Plots</p> <p>See also: Refrigerant Cross Referencing Table</p> <p>Shell&amp;Tube Exchanger GeometryThe Exchanger Geometry section includes the following screens: Geometry Summary</p> <p>file://C:\Documents and Settings\Asim\Local Settings\Temp\~hhA90D.htm</p> <p>6/3/2010</p> <p>Shell&amp;Tube Thermal Design of Shell &amp; Tube Heat Exchangers</p> <p>Page 6 of 47</p> <p>Shell/Heads/Flanges/Tubesheets Tubes Baffles/Supports Bundle Layout Nozzles Thermosiphon Piping</p> <p>Shell&amp;Tube Geometry SummaryThe Geometry Summary section includes the following screens: Geometry Tube Layout</p> <p>Shell&amp;Tube Shell/Heads/Flanges/TubesheetsThe Shell/Heads/Flanges/Tubesheets section includes the following screens: Shell/Heads Covers Tubesheets Flanges</p> <p>Shell&amp;Tube TubesThe Tubes section includes the following screens: Tube</p> <p>file://C:\Documents and Settings\Asim\Local Settings\Temp\~hhA90D.htm</p> <p>6/3/2010</p> <p>Shell&amp;Tube Thermal Design of Shell &amp; Tube Heat Exchangers</p> <p>Page 7 of 47</p> <p>Low Fins Longitudinal Fins Inserts KHT Twisted Tubes</p> <p>Shell&amp;Tube Baffles/SupportsThe Baffles/Supports section includes the following screens: Baffles Tube Supports Longitudinal Baffles Variable Baffle Pitches</p> <p>Shell&amp;Tube Bundle LayoutThe Bundle Layout section includes the following screens: Layout Parameters Layout Limits/Pass Lanes Tie Rods/Spacers Tube Layout</p> <p>Shell&amp;Tube NozzlesThe Nozzles section includes the following screens:</p> <p>file://C:\Documents and Settings\Asim\Local Settings\Temp\~hhA90D.htm</p> <p>6/3/2010</p> <p>Shell&amp;Tube Thermal Design of Shell &amp; Tube Heat Exchangers</p> <p>Page 8 of 47</p> <p>Shell Side Nozzles Tube Side Nozzles Domes/Belts Impingement</p> <p>Shell&amp;Tube Thermosiphon PipingThe Thermosiphon Piping section includes the following screens: Thermosiphon Piping Inlet Piping Elements Outlet Piping Elements</p> <p>Shell&amp;Tube Construction SpecificationsThe Construction Specifications section includes the following screens: Materials of Construction Design Specifications</p> <p>Shell&amp;Tube Materials of ConstructionThe Construction Specifications section includes the following screens: Vessel Materials Cladding/Gasket Materials Tube Properties</p> <p>Shell&amp;Tube Design SpecificationsThe Design Specifications section includes the following screens: Design Specifications</p> <p>Shell&amp;Tube Program Options</p> <p>file://C:\Documents and Settings\Asim\Local Settings\Temp\~hhA90D.htm</p> <p>6/3/2010</p> <p>Shell&amp;Tube Thermal Design of Shell &amp; Tube Heat Exchangers</p> <p>Page 9 of 47</p> <p>The Program Options section includes the following screens: Design Options Thermal Analysis Methods/Correlations Calculation Options</p> <p>Shell&amp;Tube Design OptionsThe Design Options section includes the following screens: Geometry Options Geometry Limits Process Limits Optimization Options</p> <p>Shell&amp;Tube Thermal AnalysisThe Thermal Analysis section includes the following screens: Heat Transfer Pressure Drop Delta T Fouling</p> <p>Shell&amp;Tube Methods/CorrelationsThe Methods/Correlations section includes the following screens: General Condensation Vaporization</p> <p>file://C:\Documents and Settings\Asim\Local Settings\Temp\~hhA90D.htm</p> <p>6/3/2010</p> <p>Shell&amp;Tube Thermal Design of Shell &amp; Tube Heat Exchangers</p> <p>Page 10 of 47</p> <p>Enhancement Data</p> <p>Shell&amp;Tube Calculation OptionsThe items on this sheet let you specify whether to use the Standard or Advanced calculation method, and to select various options available with the Advanced method:</p> <p>Calculation Method</p> <p>Convergence Options Maximum Number of Iterations Convergence Tolerance - Heat Load Convergence Tolerance - Pressure Relaxation Parameter Calculation Grid Resolution Convergence Criterion Calculation Step Size</p> <p>Pressure Drop Options Pressure drop calculations options - cold side Pressure drop calculations options - hot side</p> <p>Shell&amp;Tube ResultsInput Summary</p> <p>Result Summary</p> <p>file://C:\Documents and Settings\Asim\Local Settings\Temp\~hhA90D.htm</p> <p>6/3/2010</p> <p>Shell&amp;Tube Thermal Design of Shell &amp; Tube Heat Exchangers</p> <p>Page 11 of 47</p> <p>Warnings &amp; Messages Optimization Path Recap of Designs TEMA Sheet Shell&amp;Tube Summary</p> <p>Thermal / Hydraulic Summary Performance Overall Performance, Resistance Diagram Heat Transfer Heat Transfer Coefficients, MTD &amp; Flux, Duty Distribution Pressure Drop Pressure Drop, Thermosiphon Piping, Thermosiphon Piping Elements Flow Analysis Flow Analysis, Thermosiphons and Kettles Vibration &amp; Resonance Analysis Fluid-Elastic Instability, Resonance Analysis, TEMA Fluid Elastic Instability, TEMA Amplitude and Acoustic Analysis Methods</p> <p>Mechanical Summary Exchanger Geometry Setting Plan Tubesheet Layout Cost / Weights</p> <p>Calculation Details Analysis along Shell Analysis along Tubes Analysis for X and K shell</p> <p>file://C:\Documents and Settings\Asim\Local Settings\Temp\~hhA90D.htm</p> <p>6/3/2010</p> <p>Shell&amp;Tube Thermal Design of Shell &amp; Tube Heat Exchangers</p> <p>Page 12 of 47</p> <p>Shell&amp;Tube Input Summary</p> <p>This section provides you with a summary of the information specified in the input file. It is recommended that you request the input data as part of your printed output so that it is easy to reconstruct the input, which led to the design. Shell&amp;Tube Result Summary</p> <p>The Result Summary section includes the following screens: Warnings &amp; Messages Optimization Path Recap of Designs TEMA Sheet Shell&amp;Tube Summary</p> <p>Shell&amp;Tube Warnings &amp; MessagesAspen Shell &amp; Tube Exchanger provides an extensive system of errors, warnings and other messages to help you use the program. They are for the most part self explanatory, and contain information on the values of parameters which have led to the reported condition. There are several hundred messages built into the program, and these can be divided into number of types. Range Checking Warning. These relate to input values which are outside the range of what is normally expected. You should check that the input value referred to is correct. If so the message can usually be ignored, though for unusual exchanger geometries, or unusual fluid properties, it is likely that the uncertainty in the results is exacerbated. Input Omission Error These identify input parameters which are necessary for the program to run. Whether a particular parameter is necessary can depend on the values of other parameters. Required input is normally identified in the User interface, though there are occasionally instances where a required item is not highlighted in the Interface, or where an item is shown as required by the interface, does not lead to an</p> <p>file://C:\Documents and Settings\Asim\Local Settings\Temp\~hhA90D.htm</p> <p>6/3/2010</p> <p>Shell&amp;Tube Thermal Design of Shell &amp; Tube Heat Exchangers</p> <p>Page 13 of 47</p> <p>error when the program is run. Range Checking Error These identify input values which are beyond the range of what is permitted. They cause program execution to cease. Results Warning The run has completed, but problems have been identified with some part of the calculation, which indicate that some aspect of the results may be subject to more uncertainty than normal. Results Error The run has either failed to generate a significant part of the results, or failed to complete in some way that many of the results given should not be relied on. Operation Warning The run has completed, but is predicting operation which does not meet normal practice, or is in some other way inadvisable, or in extreme cases impracticable. Advisory There is some feature of the exchanger, or its operation which is unusual, and for which better alternatives may exist. Notes Any other information which may be useful.</p> <p>Shell&amp;Tube Optimization PathThis part of the output is the window into the logic of the program. It shows some of the heat exchangers the program has evaluated in trying to find one, which satisfies your design conditions. These intermediate designs can also point out the constraints that are controlling the design and point out what parameters you could change to further optimize the design. To help you see which constraints are controlling the design, the conditions that do not satisfy your specifications are noted with an asterisk (*) next to the value. The asterisk will appear next to the required tube length if the exchanger is undersurfaced, or next to a pressure drop if it exceeds the maximum allowable. In design mode, Shell&amp;Tube will search for a heat exchanger configuration that will satisfy the desired process conditions. It will automatically change a number of the geometric parameters as it searches.</p> <p>file://C:\Documents and Settings\Asim\Local Settings\Temp\~hhA90D.htm</p> <p>6/3/2010</p> <p>Shell&amp;Tube Thermal Design of Shell &amp; Tube Heat Exchangers</p> <p>Page 14 of 47</p> <p>However Plate will not automatically evaluate all possible configurations, and therefore it may not necessarily find the true optimum by itself. It is up to the user to determine what possible changes to the construction could lead to a better design and then present these changes to the program. Shell&amp;Tube searches to find a design that satisfies the following: (1) enough surface area to do the desired heat transfer (2) pressure drops within the allowable (3) physical size within acceptable limits (4) velocities within an acceptable range (5) mechanically sound and practical to construct In addition to these criteria, Shell&amp;Tube also determines a budget cost estimate for each design and in most cases performs a vibration analysis. However cost and vibration do not affect the program's logic for optimization. There are over thirty mechanical parameters which directly or indirectly affect the thermal performance of a shell and tube heat exchanger. It is not practical for the program to evaluate all combinations of these parameters. In addition, the acceptable variations are often dependent upon process and cost considerations which are beyond the scope of the program (for example the cost and importance of cleaning). Therefore the program automatically varies only a number of parameters which are reasonably independent of other process, operating, maintenance, or fabrication considerations. The parameters which are automatically optimized are: shell diameter baffle spacing pass layout type tube length number of baffles exchangers in parallel number of tubes tube pass...</p>