By: Sunanda Tah SEA OTTERS -Keystone Species SEA OTTERS -Keystone Species.

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<ul><li> Slide 1 </li> <li> By: Sunanda Tah SEA OTTERS -Keystone Species SEA OTTERS -Keystone Species </li> <li> Slide 2 </li> <li> Species Profile KINGDOM: Animalia PHYLUM: Chordata CLASS: Mammalia ORDER: Carnivora FAMILY: Mustelidae GENUS: Enhydra SPECIES: Lutris </li> <li> Slide 3 </li> <li> Species Profile Scientific Name: Enhydra lutris Common Names: Sea Otter Loutre De Mer Nutria Del Kamtchatka Nutria Marina The sea otters historic range stretched from Japan, and down along the coast of Siberia. Alaska, British Columbia, Washington, Oregon and California also had many sea otters. Currently sea otters can be found in some parts of California, Alaska, Canada, and Russia. </li> <li> Slide 4 </li> <li> Sea Otter Range Map </li> <li> Slide 5 </li> <li> Species Profile Habitat and Type of System Sea Otters, are marine animals. They live in a aquatic system. They inhabit near shore coastal waters of less than 54 metres in depth. They can be found in both, rocky and soft-bottom habitats. The typical characteristics of sea otter habitats, are rocky shores, barrier reefs, tidewater stones, and dense kelp forests. </li> <li> Slide 6 </li> <li> Species Profile Population The current population (from 2010) of sea otters is approximately 2700. Trend The trend from the past decade is that from 1990,the sea otter population was extremely low, then in 2007, the population, was really high (3000), however from 2008 to 2010, the population gradually decreased to 2700 </li> <li> Slide 7 </li> <li> Why Sea Otters Became Endangered They were killed for their extremely valuable fur. The 18th and 19th century were among the most destructive for sea otters, since they were hunted down for fur trade. Sea otters, are known for their fur. They have the thickest fur of any mammal. Since 1977, sea otters have been protected by the U.S. Endangered Species Act. </li> <li> Slide 8 </li> <li> Example of Sea Otter Population Trend </li> <li> Slide 9 </li> <li> Major Threats to Sea Otters 1)Pollution 2)Toxic Algae 3)Interaction with Fishing Gear </li> <li> Slide 10 </li> <li> Major Threats to Sea Otters Disease-causing agents and toxic chemicals running off the U.S. West Coast may be killing hundreds of southern sea otters each year Some scientists believe that the chemicals weaken sea otters immune systems, making them more susceptible to infectious diseases Threat Number 1: Pollution </li> <li> Slide 11 </li> <li> Major Threats to Sea Otters The deaths could erase decades of conservation efforts that have helped restore the population to about 2,500. Threat Number 1: Pollution Continued </li> <li> Slide 12 </li> <li> Major Threats to Sea Otters Threat Number 2: Toxic Algae Bloom Microcystin toxicosis, caused by cyanobacterium of the genus Microcystis, known as blue-green algae are dangerous to sea otters. Liver samples of sea otters tested positive for the toxin. Unusually high number of Microcystis blooms have been recently spotted. </li> <li> Slide 13 </li> <li> Major Threats to Sea Otters Sea otters feed along the shoreline. Species such as clams and mussels are capable of having both biological and chemical pollutants in their digestive tissue. sea otters are most at risk of blue-green algae poisoning Scientists are looking for causes of toxic algae growth, so that they can help the sea otters. Threat Number 2: Toxic Algae </li> <li> Slide 14 </li> <li> Major Threats to Sea Otters Sea otters are not being targeted, but fishing equipment is very harmful to them. Two major fishing equipment that harm sea otters, are gill nets, and live fish traps Threat Number 3: Interaction with Fishing Gear Live Fish Trap Gill Nets </li> <li> Slide 15 </li> <li> Major Threats to Sea Otters Gill nets are one of the equipments used to capture fish. They are single walled nets made of nylon The nets hang like curtains in the water with weights on the bottom and floaters on the top. Threat Number 3: Interaction with Fishing Gear- Gill Nets </li> <li> Slide 16 </li> <li> Major Threats Since sea otters live in water, the nets have killed them the most. Sea otters have been killed by getting entangled in the nets. Gill Nets Continued </li> <li> Slide 17 </li> <li> Live fish traps, catch fish live, they have large openings that lead down to a much smaller chamber, which allow fish to swim in but they cant swim out. Sea otters swim into this equipment and become ensnared in these traps, and die or either become really hurt. Many southern sea otters have died this way. Major Threats Threat Number 3-Fishing Gear- Live Fish Traps </li> <li> Slide 18 </li> <li> Food Web </li> <li> Slide 19 </li> <li> Classification Map The species in the food web can all fit in the phylum of chordata. Green algae and phytoplankton do not fit in chordata Phylum for green algae is chlorophyta Phylum for the phytoplankton in the food web is Haptophyta. Kingdom for the animals would be Animalia Kingdom for green algae and phytoplankton would be Protista Indication-Where Species from Food Web Fit </li> <li> Slide 20 </li> <li> Classification Map Chordata is a phylum that includes familiar species. This phylum even includes humans. In the Chordata phylum, there are three subphylums. All chordates, have the following features during some point in their life. Humans may only show these features in the embryo. Phylum: Chordata </li> <li> Slide 21 </li> <li> Classification Map The four features are: Pharyngeal slits: series of openings connecting the inside of the throat to the outside of the neck. Dorsal nerve cord: a bundle of nerve fibres which go down all the way to the back. This connects the brain with the lateral muscles and other organs. Notochord: It is a cartilaginous rod that supports the nerve cord Post-anal tail- an extension of the body </li> <li> Slide 22 </li> <li> Classification Map Killer whales are found in oceans, from the Arctic and Antarctic regions to tropical seas. They currently are an endangered species. There are five types of killer whales. Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Chordata Class: Mammalia Order: Cetacea Family: Delphinidae Genus: Orcinus Specie: orca Scientific name: Orcinus orca 1) Examples of Species that have Phylum Chordata: Killer Whale </li> <li> Slide 23 </li> <li> Classification Map Polar bears are threatened species, since they are under the vulnerable category. They mainly live in the ice covered waters of the circumpolar Arctic, and their range is limited by the southern extent of sea ice. Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Chordata Class: Mammalia Order: Carnivora Family: Ursidae Genus: Ursus Species: maritimus Scientific name: Ursus maritimus 2) Polar Bear </li> <li> Slide 24 </li> <li> Classification Map Snow Leopards, are endangered species. They live in the high mountains of central Asia. The main areas where they live are Altai, Tian Shan, Kun Lun, Pamir, Hindu Kush, Karakorum and Himalayan ranges. Kingdom: animalia Phylum: Chordata Class: Mammalia Order: Carnivora Family: Felidae Genus: Panthera Specie: uncial Scientific name: Panthera uncia 3) Snow Leopard </li> <li> Slide 25 </li> <li> Consequences If sea otters become extinct, there will be many consequences such as: Kelp forests will become endangered, and even destroyed. Sea otters eat sea urchins and other animals that graze on giant kelp. Without sea otters, grazing animals will destroy the kelp forests and animals that live there. Extinction of Sea Otters </li> <li> Slide 26 </li> <li> Consequences Continued Marine organisms, that come under sea otters in the food web, will be at risk of dying. Sea otters, keep healthy kelp forests, which support thousands of organisms, if they are destroyed, then many marine organisms will be at risk. </li> <li> Slide 27 </li> <li> Consequences Continued In California, wildlife viewing is one of the most popular activities, and this attracts many tourists and residents. Without sea otters, this attraction will not be valuable anymore </li> <li> Slide 28 </li> <li> Consequences Continued Sea otters are keystone species, without them, it will be very difficult for scientists to determine ocean trends. </li> <li> Slide 29 </li> <li> Consequences Continued Sea otters are getting many diseases. Since humans and sea otters eat many of the same seafood items, human health might be at risk too. Along with marine ecosystem health Therefore, if sea otters become extinct human life will be at risk, since there will be many diseases coming from seafood. </li> <li> Slide 30 </li> <li> Personal Response Biodiversity is the number of different organisms, living in an area. Biodiversity is everywhere on earth. Greater amounts of biodiversity are better for humans, and animals. For instance, greater biodiversity means that there will be a number of different species, and that will ensure natural sustainability for all life forms. For example, if there are high amounts of biodiversity, there will be more species, and therefore sustainability will not be an issue. Is Biodiversity Important? </li> <li> Slide 31 </li> <li> Personal Response The reason for this is because, there will be more natural resources available, than with lower amounts of biodiversity. Another reason, why biodiversity is important is because with high amounts of biodiversity there will be healthier ecosystems. Also, if there is a lot of biodiversity then ecosystems will be able to recover from many disasters very quickly. </li> <li> Slide 32 </li> <li> Personal Response A healthy biodiversity provides many natural services for people. For instance, if the ecosystems are healthy then there will be many advantages such as: climate stability, less pollution, the water will be healthier and soils will be richer with nutrients. The reason why there will be less pollution with high amounts of biodiversity, is because plants absorb greenhouse gases which help decrease global warming. </li> <li> Slide 33 </li> <li> Personal Response Therefore, by more plants there will be more greenhouse gases absorbed. Also, if there is a lot biodiversity there will be more to learn from, and there will be more tourism opportunities. The reason why there will be more tourism opportunities is because there will be more animals and plants to look at and discover. </li> <li> Slide 34 </li> <li> Personal Response Biodiversity is very important for humans, as well as plants and animals. However, with increased biodiversity, humans will have more medicine. For example, many of the medicinal drugs come from plants therefore, with more plants there will be more medicine produced. </li> <li> Slide 35 </li> <li> Personal Response Also, with increased biodiversity, scientists might even be able to come up with new medicinal drugs that might help treat major diseases such as cancer. In conclusion, biodiversity is very important, to all living species on earth. </li> <li> Slide 36 </li> <li> Action Plan </li> <li> Slide 37 </li> <li> Slide 38 </li> <li> Slide 39 </li> <li> Slide 40 </li> <li> Bibliography 1911., treaty, w. s., California, o. 1., then, a. s., &amp; range, t. e. (n.d.). Saving Sea Otters | Monterey Bay Aquarium. Monterey Bay Aquarium. Retrieved October 19, 2011, from http://www.montereybayaquarium.org/ http://www.montereybayaquarium.org/ Defenders of Wildlife - Protection of endangered species, imperilled species, habitats. (n.d.). Defenders of Wildlife - Protection of endangered species, imperilled species, habitats. Retrieved October 19, 2011, from http://www.defenders.orghttp://www.defenders.org Species Profile </li> <li> Slide 41 </li> <li> Bibliography Enhydra lutris. (n.d.). The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Retrieved October 19, 2011, from http://www.iucnredlist.org/apps/redlist/details/7750/0 http://www.iucnredlist.org/apps/redlist/details/7750/0 Oregon Zoo Animals: Sea Otter. (n.d.). Oregon Zoo | Portland, Oregon. Retrieved October 21, 2011, from http://www.oregonzoo.org/Cards/Steller_cove/seaotter.htm http://www.oregonzoo.org/Cards/Steller_cove/seaotter.htm Species Profile </li> <li> Slide 42 </li> <li> Bibliography Sea Otter Recovery Threatened by Pollution, Researchers Say. (n.d.). Daily Nature and Science News and Headlines | National Geographic News. Retrieved October 21, 2011, from http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2006/04/0405_060405 _sea_otters.html http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2006/04/0405_060405 _sea_otters.html Endangered sea otters threatened by toxic algae. (n.d.). American Veterinary Medical Association. Retrieved October 21, 2011, from http://www.avma.org/onlnews/javma/nov10/101115i.asp http://www.avma.org/onlnews/javma/nov10/101115i.asp Major Threats </li> <li> Slide 43 </li> <li> Bibliography Algae. (n.d.). lenntech. Retrieved October 19, 2011, from http://www.lenntech.com/eutrophication-water-bodies/algae.html http://www.lenntech.com/eutrophication-water-bodies/algae.html Plankton and the Benthos: From the Top to the Bottom. (n.d.). NEW Science at Coastal Carolina University. Retrieved October 19, 2011, from http://kingfish.coastal.edu/biology/sgilman/770PlanktonBenthos.ht m http://kingfish.coastal.edu/biology/sgilman/770PlanktonBenthos.ht m Food Web </li> <li> Slide 44 </li> <li> Bibliography SCDNR - Blue Crab. (n.d.). South Carolina Department of Natural Resources. Retrieved October 19, 2011, from http://www.dnr.sc.gov/marine/pub/seascience/bluecrab.html http://www.dnr.sc.gov/marine/pub/seascience/bluecrab.html Animal scientific names.. (n.d.). Scientific name. Scientific names. ScientificName.net. Plant and animal scientific names. Retrieved October 19, 2011, from http://www.scientificname.net/animal_names/crab_scientific_nam es/ http://www.scientificname.net/animal_names/crab_scientific_nam es/ Food Web </li> <li> Slide 45 </li> <li> Bibliography ScienceDirect - Soil Biology and Biochemistry : Detritivorous earthworms directly modify the structure, thus altering the functioning of a microdecomposer food web. (n.d.). ScienceDirect - Home. Retrieved October 19, 2011, from http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0038071708002 095 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0038071708002 095 Sea Otter: Classification, Characteristics, Reproduction, Habitat, Behaviour, Facts of sea otter. (n.d.). All The Sea : Information on Sea and Sea Life. Retrieved October 19, 2011, from http://www.allthesea.com/Sea-Otter.html http://www.allthesea.com/Sea-Otter.html Food Web </li> <li> Slide 46 </li> <li> Bibliography Phylum Chordata. (n.d.). ucmp. Retrieved October 19, 2011, from http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/chordata/chordata.html http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/chordata/chordata.html Killer Whales: Scientific Classification. (n.d.). SeaWorld/Busch Gardens ANIMALS - HOME. Retrieved October 19, 2011, from http://www.seaworld.org/infobooks/killerwhale/sciclasskw.html http://www.seaworld.org/infobooks/killerwhale/sciclasskw.html Enhydra lutris. (n.d.). The IUCN Red List of Threatned Species. Retrieved October 19, 2011, from http://www.iucnredlist.org/apps/redlist/details/7750/0 http://www.iucnredlist.org/apps/re...</li></ul>