busting learning myths: fact of fishy
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DESCRIPTIONThis presentation was given at the 2012 UL Eduneering Knowledge Summit. Here is the description:Thought you knew about learning design and instruction? Test yourself as Learning myths are presented and exposed in this interactive question and answer session. Once the myths are exposed, we will discuss remedies to each myth based on the latest educational research. This evidenced-based presentation will provide you with the tools, evidence, and techniques you need to go back into your organization and present, design or purchase training that makes a difference.
- 1. Busting Learning MythsBy Karl M. KappBloomsburg University Twitter:@kkappMay 4, 2012 email@example.com
- 2. Lets PlayFact or Fishy
- 3. Rules A statement is presented If true indicate: FactX If false indicate: FishyX Text Response:
- 4. When teaching a process, such as anSOP, you shouldTeach system componentsbefore teaching the fullprocess. Is that Fact or Fishy?
- 5. Teach each component individually, then the learner is prepared to assimilate the stages of the entire process. Fact Otherwise you risk overloading the learners memory by presenting everything all at once.Clark, R., Nguyen, F. & Sweller, J. (2006) Efficiency in Learning: Evidence-Based Guidelines to Manage Cognitive Load.New York: Pfeiffer. Pg. 162-165.
- 6. An animation is alwaysmore effective for learningthan a series of staticimages. Is that Fact or Fishy?
- 7. A number of studies have failed to find that animations are more effective than a series of static frames depicting the same material. Why: Learners have to mentally animate content in still graphics. Learners control pace and speed of information presented. Memory is not overloaded by rich detail and transitory nature of presentation.Clark, R., Mayer, R. (2011) E-Learning and the Science of Instruction: Proven Guidelines for Consumers and Designers ofMultimedia Learning. New York: Pfeiffer. Pg. 84-86.
- 8. Research is focused on Conceptual Information, understanding of processeslike mechanism of action. Animations work well when showing hands on procedures and transformational changes such as an animated demonstration of a computer procedure.Clark, R., Mayer, R. (2011) E-Learning and the Science of Instruction: Proven Guidelines for Consumers and Designers ofMultimedia Learning. New York: Pfeiffer. Pg. 84-86.
- 9. Drag and drop a shapeonto the image.
- 10. Write the wordsInformal Learning inthe shape. Then right click and select Format Shape.
- 11. Select 3-D Format.
- 12. Hi, how are you doing?...The tone of e-learningshould be informal andconversational. Is that Fact or Fishy?
- 13. In 5 out of 5 studies, learners who learned with conversational text performed better on subsequent transfer tests than students who learned with formal text. Fact Learners produced between 20 to 46 percent more solutions to transfer problems than the formal group.Clark, R., Mayer, R. (2011) E-Learning and the Science of Instruction: Proven Guidelines for Consumers and Designers ofMultimedia Learning. New York: Pfeiffer. Pg. 184-185.
- 14. Formal:This program is about what type of bacteria cansurvive on different types of surfaces when preparing food.For each type of bacteria a solution will be described.The goal is to learn which conditions allow bacteria tosurvive on what surface. Some hints are providedthroughout the program.Informal:You are about to learn about different types of bacteria and howthey can survive on different types of surfaces when preparingfood. For each type of bacteria a solution will be described toyou. Your goal is to learn which conditions allow bacteria tosurvive on what surface. I will be guiding you by givinghints.
- 15. An on-screen character isdistracting to the learner anddoes not facilitate learningas well as simple text. Is that Fact or Fishy?
- 16. On transfer tests involving different word problems, the group who had a character generated 30% more correct answers than the group with on-screen text. Animated pedagogical agents (characters) can be aids to learning. A realistic character did not facilitate learning any better than a cartoon-like character.Clark, R., Mayer, R. (2011) E-Learning and the Science of Instruction: Proven Guidelines for Consumers and Designers ofMultimedia Learning. New York: Pfeiffer. Pg. 194.
- 17. Two avatars are better than one?Motivator Mentor Expert Fact or Fishy?
- 18. Yes, two avatars are better than one. Fact Motivator MentorBaylor, A. L. & Kim, Y. (2005). Simulating instructional roles throughpedagogical agents. International Journal of Artificial Intelligence inEducation, 15(1), 95-115. Expert
- 19. When a graphic is the focus ofinstructionWords should be presentedas text on screen ratherthan spoken. Is that Fact or Fishy?
- 20. Learners may experience an overload of their visual/ pictorial channel when they must simultaneously process graphics and the printed words that refer to them. When visuals are relatively complex, using audio allows the learner to focus on the visual while listening to the explanation.Clark, R., Mayer, R. (2011) E-Learning and the Science of Instruction: Proven Guidelines for Consumers and Designers ofMultimedia Learning. New York: Pfeiffer. Pg. 117.
- 21. Learners remember facts betterWhen presented as bulletedlist rather than presented asa story.Is that Fact or Fishy?
- 22. Researchers have found that the Yep, People tend to remember facts human brain has a natural affinity more accurately if they encounter for narrative construction. them in a story rather than in a list. And they rate legal arguments as more convincing when built into narrative tales rather than on legal precedent.Carey, B. (2007) this is Your Life (and How You Tell it). The New York Times.Melanie Green http://www.unc.edu/~mcgreen/research.html
- 23. NikePlus Stats for Karl
- 24. Story Elements1. Characters2. Plot (something has to happen).3. Tension 4. Resolution5. Conclusion
- 25. One way to engage learners is toPresent them with a difficultchallenge. Is that Fact or Fishy?
- 26. Fact. Provide a challengeJones, B., Valdez, G., Norakowski, J., & Rasmussen, C. (1994). Designing learning and technology for educationalreform. North Central Regional Educational Laboratory. [Online]. Available:http://www.ncrtec.org/capacity/profile/profwww.htm and Schlechty, P. C. (1997). Inventing better schools: An action planfor educational reform. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass
- 27. Re-design the Instruction to Start with a Challenge
- 28. Investigatory Training Course Objectives Identify the Forms Required for an Investigation Practice Interview Techniques Understand and Follow the Investigation Model
- 29. It is your first day on the job as an investigator andJane, an employee in Accounting, just accused herboss of embezzling $10,000.What is the first thing you should do?
- 30. Games are effective tools for learningbecauseThey provide interactivity t