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Building Water Systems. Water, water everywhere, WHICH drop to drink?. Tom Meyer Director, Technical Programs National Environmental Balancing Bureau. Why should we worry ?. Did you know?. We are all water creatures. Water makes up:. 60% of your body. 70% of your brain. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Building Water SystemsWater, water everywhere, WHICH drop to drink?

Tom MeyerDirector, Technical ProgramsNational Environmental Balancing BureauWhy should we worry?Did you know?

We are all water creatures

Water makes up:60% of your body

70% of your brain

80% of your blood

Did you know?

While you can go almost a month without food

Your body cant survive one week without water.

Did you know?

The same water that existed on Earth billions of years ago still exists today.

It covers most of the planet, but just 3% is freshwater.

And most of that is ice.

Less than 1% of all freshwater is readily accessible for human use.

To put it another wayLess than 0.007% of all the water on Earth is available to drink. (Thats one gallon in every 70,000 gallons)Did you know?

Whats Going on With Existing Fresh Water Supplies? 2030% of clean water put into the local distribution system is lost before it gets to your building. (50% if its an older system.)25% of the clean water that enters your homeis used to flush toilets.15% of the clean water that enters your homeis used at your faucets.One toilet flush uses up to 3 gallonsOne load of laundry uses up to 40 gallonsOne 10-minute shower uses up to 50 gallonsBrushing with the tap running: 4 gallonsBrushing with the tap off: 0.25 gallonsDid you know?

In the 20th Century the worlds population tripled.

In the 20th Century the water use grew 6 times

Did you know?

Millions of people in the world live on less than 3 gallons each day

The average American uses about 160 gallons

Conventional Wisdom: We are going to run out of water before we run out of oil.Due to over-pumping, the groundwater in several countries is almost gone.

Depleted aquifers lead to cutbacks in grain harvests

which lead to more food shortages and higher prices.Our water problem could fast become our hunger problem

Did you know?

Industry is thirsty

43Agriculture is thirsty

Humanity is thirsty

When the well is dry, we know the worth of water.

- Benjamin Franklin, Poor Richards Almanac, 1746Why should we worry?Now you know why.This is not a future generations problemThis is a now generations problem300-Year Drought Was Downfall of Ancient Greece- Study published in PLOS ONEMajor U.S. Cities Are at Risk for Climate-Related Water Shortage- Bloomberg In the last five years, nearly every region of the country has experienced water shortages. - US EPA World Water Day: A forceful reminder that the U.S. is running out of fresh water- The Washington PostFreshwater Crisis- National Geographic How do we make a finite resource meet our needs?Reduce Freshwater Consumption

Eliminate waste

More efficient systems

Use non-potable water where possibleEliminating WasteLeaks/dripsRunning water until it heats up (200-300 g/month)Oversized toilet tanks (oversized 1.6 1.3-0.8 g/flush)No flow restrictors (500 g/year)Landscape irrigation (overwatering)Other ideas?The landscape irrigation community also faces needs to improve efficiency. Rex Dixon, President of the Irrigation Association, noted: The facts are, the landscape irrigation industry is a very visible user and abuser of water, with irrigation systems operating in the rain, with irrigation overflow running down drive ways and streets, with most irrigation controllers set to over water.53More Efficient SystemsToilets/Urinals Flow restrictors lavs, showers, etc.Machines Washers, dishwashers, etc.Other ideas?WaterSenseIf its Yellow, its Mellow policy of water conservation. 54Overview of Water SystemsUsed to be: 2-pipe system

Pressurized potable water - INUnpressurized wastewater - OUTNow:

Potable waterRainwaterGreywaterBlack waterReclaimed waterAdequate labeling is a major concern, particularly when pressure piping is used.57What are these different kinds of water?Potable waterDefined as water fit for consumption by humans and animals. 59Potable waterSources

Ground Sources groundwater, hyporheic zones and aquifers Precipitation Fresh Surface Water Biological Sources Seawater Desalination AtmosphereThe hyporheic zone is a region beneath and lateral to a stream bed, where there is mixing of shallow groundwater and surface water60Non-potable waterWater that is unsafe or unpalatable for consumption61Non-potable water

RainwaterGreywaterBlackwaterReclaimed waterPurpose of non-potable water systemsTo reduce the use of potable water. Potential uses for non-potable water systemsRainwaterRainwater Harvesting Catching and holding rain where it falls and using it. Usually collected or harvested from rooftops, concrete patios, driveways and other impervious surfaces. It can be stored in tanks or used to recharge groundwater instead of allowing it to run off or go into storm sewers. 66Rainwater UsesReduces flooding, erosion and contamination of surface water with sediments, fertilizers, and pesticides in rainfall runoff.Rainwater UsesRainwater is good for plants because it is free of salts and other minerals that harm root growth.

As rainwater percolates into the soil, it forces salts down and away from the roots zones, allowing roots to grow better and making plants more drought tolerant.Rainwater ConcernsWater Quality

Impurities in the air in industrialized/urban areas such as arsenic and mercury.

Bird droppings, dust and other impurities.

Generally, not considered potable in the US

Rainwater ConcernsWhats wrong in this photo?

Rainwater Uses Lawn and Garden Irrigation Toilet Flushing Washing Livestock Car Washing Indoor Plant Watering Pet and Livestock Watering Evaporative CoolersRainwater SystemsSimple as any container capable of holding rain from a roof or a patio with a bucket or tap

Complex as a designed underground complex of specially designed containers with pumpsRainwater Systems

Rainwater Systems

Rainwater Systems

Did you know?

Rainwater systems have been around for a long, long time.

The long flowing material of the traditional sari are still used today as catchment and filtration systems.77Greywater7% of the US households have reported greywater systems.78Greywater DefinedWastewater collected separately from a sewage flow that does not contain industrial chemicals, hazardous wastes, or wastewater from toilets. This definition is common in Europe and Australia however some US jurisdictions exclude kitchen sink water and diaper wash water. Also known as sullage. Greywater gets its name from its cloudy appearance and being between clean whitewater and heavily polluted blackwater. 79Greywater SourcesShower/tubLaundry *Kitchen Sink *Dishwasher *Lavatory SinkUtility SinkSwimming Pool #Evaporative Cooler #

* - may not be acceptable in some jurisdictions. There are arguments about contact with foodstuffs. Laundry may contact fecal matter from diapers, etc. # - chlorine or salinity may be an issue on possible uses. Where allowed, when using laundry water for irrigation, avoid using liquid fabric softener or laundry soap containing fabric softener. Laundry powders contain salt as a bulking agent.80NOT Greywater SourcesToiletsHazardous WasteBiohazard WasteHazardous ChemicalsLaundry water from Infectious garmentsLaundry water from greasy or oily rags

Antifreeze Mothballs Solvents Oils Petroleum based fluids81Greywater Advantages Reduction of potable water use

Reduction of sewer

Available irrigation water

Less load on septic systemsAvailable irrigation water no restrictions during draught (even/odd). Suggested benefits: reclamation of otherwise wasted nutrients; less energy and chemical use (central plant treatment); improved plant growth from tiny bits of compost. Less load on septic system Greywater greatly extends the useful life and capacity of septic systems.82Greywater Concerns Avoid human contact with greywater

Avoid contact with greywater irrigated soil

Do not irrigate food plants except citrus/nut trees

Minimize standing greywater (no ponding)

Do not use spray/misting irrigation go for roots83Greywater ConcernsPlants which thrive on acidic soil should not be watered with typically alkaline greywater

Use greywater on well-established plants, not seedlings or young plants

Less effluent = less reclaimed water available

Do not store greywater unless treated firstGreywater Concerns Accidental greywater-related illnessNumber of people struck by lightning in the US per year: 400Number of people drowned in bath tubs in the US per year: 344Number of people with greywater transmitted illness: 0Greywater UsesIrrigation, toilet flushing and other non-contact uses.Could be drained into a mulch-filled basin for irrigation.86Greywater Systems Early greywater systems consisted of nothing more than a pipe going from the bottom of the sink through the exterior wall to drain out back pointed down a nearby slope.87Greywater Systems

Greywater SystemsGravity-fed Manual Systems

Package Systems89Greywater SystemsGravity-fed Manual Systems

Package SystemsDo not require electricity because they work on gravity. May require a larger yard area to install the system outside. 90Greywater SystemsGravity-fed Manual Systems

Package SystemsUS-made package systems are relatively scarce. Require electricity. Self-contained. Can be installed indoors. 91Greywater SystemsSettling TankSolids and large particles settle to the bottomGrease, oils and small particles floatAllows hot water to coolShould be sized to hold twice the expected daily flow plus 40%. (65% of domestic water used is greywater) Septic tanks are well suited fo

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