Building Types and Architectural Styles - New Orleans nbsp; building types and architectural styles in the City. ... While the Creole Cottage is a vernacular type with minimal stylistic features,

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  • BuildingTypesandArchitecturalStyles

    CityofNewOrleansHDLCBuildingTypesandArchitecturalStyles031

    NEWORLEANSABUNDANTHISTORICARCHITECTURENew Orleans possesses an abundance of historicarchitecture constructed over a period spanning almostthree hundred years. The City is home to more thantwenty National Register historic districts, fifteen localHistoric Districts, and scores of local and nationalLandmark buildings. Almost half of the buildings NewOrleanianscallhomewerebuiltbeforeWorldWar II,theearliestdatingfromthe18thcentury.Asaresult,theCityhas a diversity of architectural styles and types, ofbuildingsboth grand and small,unrivalled in thenation.As importantly, New Orleans is home to architecturalstylesand types thatareclosely tied to the imageof theCity, and that appear in New Orleans in numbers andcombinationsunseeninotherplaces.

    VisitorstoNewOrleansareasfrequentlyconfusedbylocalbuildingterminology(whatisaCamelbackShotgun?)asthey are when residents refer to lakeside instead ofnorth. Given the sheernumberofhistoricbuildings inNew Orleans, the wide variety of building shapes andsizes, architectural styles and details, and imaginativedesign ideasbuildingownersandarchitectshavecreatedover the years; it is sometimeshard foreven thenativeNewOrleanian to know the typeor styleof aparticularbuilding.

    SECTIONINDEXWhile these Design Guidelines cannot give a fulldescriptionofeveryhistoricbuildingtypeorarchitecturalstyle one might encounter in a New Orleans historicneighborhood,thissectionisdesignedtoprovidethebasictools necessary to recognize themost prevalent historicbuildingtypesandarchitecturalstylesintheCity.

    BuildingTypes:

    CreoleCottagePage033

    TownhousePage034

    CenterHallCottagePage035

    ShotgunPage036

    BungalowPage038

    ArchitecturalStyles:

    CreolePage309

    GreekRevivalPage0310

    ItalianatePage0311

    QueenAnne/EastlakePage0312

    ColonialRevival/Neoclassical/EdwardianPage0313

    ArtsandCraftsPage0314

    Eclectic/ExoticRevivalsPage0315

    HighStylevs.IndividualStylePage0316

    AlterationstoBuildingTypeandStylePage0316

  • 032CityofNewOrleansHDLCBuildingTypesandArchitecturalStyles

    BUILDINGTYPESANDARCHITECTURALSTYLESBuilding type refers to thebasic bonesof thebuildingsuchas:

    Isitlongandnarrow,1storytall,1roomwide?

    Tallerthanitiswide,withnorooftospeakofanddoublegalleries?

    Architecturalstyle refers to themoredecorativebuildingelements:

    Whatdotheporchcolumnsorbracketslooklike?

    Doesithaveplainsidingoristhereapattern?

    DoesitlooklikeaweddingcakeoraGreektemple?

    When a building type like a Shotgun is combined withelementsofanarchitectural style, suchasGreekRevivalwithclassicalcolumnsandawideporch,thefinalproductis aGreekRevival Shotgun,which contains thebonesofoneandthestylingoftheother.

    It is important tokeep inmind that somebuilding typesarecloselyassociatedwithsomestyles,suchasBungalowsand Arts and Crafts. By contrast, some combinationsalmostneverhappen, forexampleaCreoleCottagewithEastlakedetailing.

    Similartoclothingfashion,thepopularityofbuildingstylesandtypeschangeovertime,andinsomecases,typesfelloutoffashionbeforecertainstyles,andviceversa.

    ShotgunswereoftendecoratedwithEastlakestyleembellishments.

    ThisTownhousebuildingtypeisintheGreekrevivalstyle.Someofthecharacterdefiningelementsincludethedoublegallerysupportedbyclassicallyinspiredpiersancolumns,asteppedpediment,theGreekkeysurroundatthefrontentrancedoor,andthewoodsidingscoredtoresemblestoneblocks.

    HOWTYPESANDSTYLESWERESELECTEDFORTHISSECTIONThere are a wide range of buildings in New Orleanshistoric neighborhoods. The types and styles in thissectionare those thatoccurmostandwhosedescriptionwillbemostusefultothetypicalpropertyownerinalocalHistoricDistrict. Asa result, some stylesand typeshavebeenleftoutentirely.Ifaspecificpropertydoesnotseemto fitanyof the stylesor typesdescribed in this section,please consult the books and other resources on NewOrleansarchitecturethatarereferencedonPage0114ofthe Guidelines Introduction, on the HDLC websitewww.nola.gov, or contact the HDLC Staff at (504) 6587040forassistance.

  • CityofNewOrleansHDLCBuildingTypesandArchitecturalStyles033

    BUILDINGTYPES

    CREOLECOTTAGE (1790S1870S)TheCreoleCottageistheearliestremaininglocalhousingtypeintheCityofNewOrleans. It isavernaculartypetypicallydesignedandbuiltbytheownersandbuilders to fit localneeds andheavily influencedbyboth French and Spanishconstructionmethodsandthelocalclimate.ThetypicalCreoleCottageis1to1stories tall, 2 rooms wide and 2 rooms deep, often with small storage rooms(cabinets)attachedatthereartoeachside.CreoleCottageshavehippedorsidegabledroofs,frequentlywithtall,narrowgableddormerwindows.

    AtypicalCreoleCottagefaadeissymmetricalwithfouropenings,usuallyfoursetsofFrenchdoorsor two setsofFrenchdoorsand twodoublehungwindows,allshuttered.SmallerCreoleCottages1roomwideby2roomsdeep,withonlyonedoorandawindow(a2baycottage)alsooccur,although lessfrequently. Thefront faade is typically sheltered from theweatherby anoverhang (abatvent)thatdirectsrainawayfromthefrontfaadeandwindows.EarlierCreoleCottagesaretypicallyofbrickbetweenpostsormasonryconstructionwithsmoothplasteror wood weatherboard sheathing. Later Creole Cottages are often of frameconstructionwithwoodweatherboardsiding.

    While the Creole Cottage is a vernacular type with minimal stylistic features,cottagesbuiltatdifferenttimesmayexhibitsubtlestylisticdetailsoftheirperiod,such as arched or flattoppedwindows, dentilmoldings, and Greek Key doorsurrounds.Insomecases,Italianatedetailswereaddedtoupdateoldercottages.

    ThefaadeofthisCreoleCottageissymmetricalandthebuildingistoppedbyasteeplypitchedsidegabledroofwithanabatventextension.

    ThisweatherboardCreoleCottagehasasteeplypitchedsidegableroofthatextendsoverthefrontfaadetoproviderainprotectionoverthewindowsanddoors.

  • 034CityofNewOrleansHDLCBuildingTypesandArchitecturalStyles

    TOWNHOUSE (1790S1890S)TheTownhousebuildingtype,orsomevariationthereof,isaverycommontypeinurban areas, because its vertical massing and long, narrow footprint makesefficientuseof land. Thetownhouse inNewOrleansappearedfirst in itsCreoleforminthelatecolonialperiod,butthebasictyperemainedpopularforthebetterpartofacenturyandhasrecentlyseenaresurgenceinpopularity.

    The Townhouse building type is a 2 to 3story, 2 room deep building withdistinctly vertical massing, a side gabled or hipped roof, and a long, narrowfootprint oriented to the street. The Creole Townhouse typically has acarriageway insteadofanentrancedoorandno interior first floorhallway.TheAmerican Townhouse has a grand front entrance door leading to an interiorhallway.ATownhousewithgalleriesoneachfloorstretchingthefullwidthofthefaade is typically referred to as a Double Gallery. Despite their grandappearancefromthestreet,Townhousesusuallyhaverelativelyfewformalrooms,oftenwithasmallerservicewingbehind.

    InTownhousesofdifferentperiodsofconstruction,thetypeandstyleofwindowswillvary,aswillitsplacementonthelotaswellaswhetherornotprojectionssuchasbalconiesorgalleriesarepresent.

    ThemainblockofthisTownhousefeaturesasidegableroof.Townhousestypicallyincludemultilevelservicewingsaccessedbyexteriorgalleries.

    TownhouseswithgalleriesoneachfloorstretchingthefullwidthofthefaadearetypicallyreferredtoasDoubleGalleries.

  • CityofNewOrleansHDLCBuildingTypesandArchitecturalStyles035

    CENTERHALLCOTTAGE (1830S1880S)TheCenterHallCottage isavernacularbuildingtypethat iscommonthroughouttheAmericanSouthandtheCaribbean.ItsoriginsnodoubtpredateitsuseinNewOrleans,whereitbegantooccurinitstypicalraisedforminthe1830sand40s.

    TheCenterHallhasarectangularplan,typicallyatleast2roomswideand2deepwith a central hallway running from the front faade to the rear, and 2 smallstoragerooms(cabinets)toeithersideontherear,flankingarearserviceporch.CenterHall Cottages have side gabled roofs, oftenwith dormerwindows. ThefrontfaadeofthetypicalCenterHallisspannedbyadeepfrontporchcoveredbyaflatroofsupportedbysymmetricallyplacedcolumnsandaccessedbyacentralstair.Ithasasymmetricalarrangementofwindows,usuallytwotoeithersideofthefrontentrydoor.CenterHallCottagesaremostfrequentlysheathedinwoodweatherboard,although theexact typewillvaryaccording tostyle. AvariantoftheCenterHallCottageistheRaisedCenterHallCottage,typicallyraisedonpierstofivefeetormoreabovegrade.

    Greek Revival and Italianate Center Hall Cottages are most common in NewOrleans,butthetypecanbefoundinotherstylesincludingQueenAnne/EastlakeandotherVictorianstyles.

    Thesidegableroofform,centraldoorflankedbywindowsanddeepfrontporcharetypicalfeaturesofaCenterHallCottage.

    ThisraisedCenterHallCottageisspannedbyadeepfrontporch.

  • 036CityofNewOrleansHDLCBuildingTypesandArchitecturalStyles

    SHOTGUN (1830S1950S)TheearliestknownexamplesofShotguntypehousesinNewOrleansdateatleastto the 1830s. Shotgun houses bear a strong resemblance to Caribbean housetypesprevalentinthe18thcentury,andsomehistorianssuggestitmayhavebeenimportedtoNewOrleansintheearly19thcentury.Whateveritsorigins,thishighlyefficientandcomparativelyinexpensivebuildingtypewassopopularamongboththemiddle andworking classes for over a century that it is probably themostprevalenthistoricbuildingtypeinthecity.

    ThesimplestShotguntypehouseisthesingleShotgun,alongnarrowstructure1roomwide and3 to5 roomsdeep,witheach roomopeningonto thenext. Inaddition to the Shotgun single, the Shotgun type includes Shotgun doubles,CamelbackShotguns,SidehallShotguns,andSideGalleryShotguns.

    The typical Shotgun single faade consists of a door and window, usuallyshuttered, whichmay ormay not feature a porch or deep overhang to offerprotection from theweather. The typicalShotgunhasa frontgabledorhippedroof.

    The Shotgun double is essentially a twinned single, a 2unit residence with asymmetricalfaadeoftwodoorsandwindows,eachunit1roomwideand3to5roomsdeepwithno interiorhallway. Shotgundoublesusuallyhavea frontroof

    ThisnarrowsingleShotgunincludesapaired,shuttered,doorandwindowwithafrontgabledroofandahippedprojectingoverhang.

    TheformofthisresidenceistypicalofadoubleShotgunwithacentralpairofwindowsflankedbyentrancedoors.

  • CityofNewOrleansHDLCBuildingTypesandArchitecturalStyles037

    ThisCamelbackShotgundoublehasadeeplyoverhanginghippedroofoverthemainblockandasidegablerearsecondstoryaddition.

    ThisSideGalleryShotgunfeaturesanarrowcoveredsideporchattherightthatactsasanexteriorcorridortoconnecttherooms.

    overhang andmay ormay not have a front porch providing shelter from theelements.

    TheCamelbackShotgunisessentiallyaShotgunsingleoraShotgundouble,withasecondstoryrisingattherearportionofthebuilding.Thesecondstoryoriginatedasaverticaladditionto increase livingspace,butwas laterbuiltasapartoftheoriginalhouse.

    The Sidehall Cottage and SideGallery Shotguns are very similar in form. Theirfrontfaadesusuallyare3bayswidewithtwowindowsandafrontdoor.SimilartoShotguns,theyareeach1roomwideand3to6roomsdeep.UnlikeShotguns,bothSidehallandSideGalleryShotguns includeapassageway that runsmostofthe lengthof thehouse. Thedifferencebetween theSidehallCottageandSideGallery Shotgun types is that the side passage in a Sidehall Cottage is aconventionalhallway,whileintheSideGalleryShotgunitisanarrowcoveredsideporch. Ahybridof these two typescanbe found inwhich the frontdooropensontoasidehall1roomdeep,andthenontoasidegallery.

    Shotguntypebuildingscanbefoundwithfaadedecorations,windowsanddoors,andfrontporchdesignsreflectingeveryarchitecturalstylepopularinNewOrleansfrom18301950. Inaddition,therearemanyhumbler,purelyutilitarianShotguntypebuildingsthathavelittletonostylisticembellishment.

  • 038CityofNewOrleansHDLCBuildingTypesandArchitecturalStyles

    BUNGALOW (1910S1950S)ThebasicBungalowtypologyprobablyoriginatedinIndia,Indonesia,ortheSouthPacificandwasimportedtoBritaininthe19thcenturybyBritonswhohadlivedinthoseareas.TheBungalowtypedidnotbecomepopularintheUnitedStatesuntiljust after 1900, when it was strongly associated with the Arts and Crafts orCraftsman style. The Bungalow type achieved its greatest early popularity andstylisticdevelopment inCalifornia. TheBungalow typebegan toappear inNewOrleansafter theFirstWorldWar,andcontinued inpopularityuntilat least the1950s.

    ThebasicBungalow is a1 to1story residence,usually aboutaswide as it isdeep, with a moderately irregular floor plan, reflecting the internal roomarrangementandsometimes incorporatingbaywindowprojections. Buildings intheBungalow typealmost invariablyhavea substantial frontporch thatmaybeincorporatedunder themain rooforproject in frontof themain roofstructure.Bungalowtyperesidencesareusuallyasymmetrical incomposition,withcomplexroofplans,includinggableonhip,crossgabled,ormorecomplexplans,frequentlywithsubstantialdormerwindows.

    TheBungalow type is typically found in theArts andCrafts style, butmay alsoshowmotifsofotherearly20thcenturyarchitectural styles, suchas theColonialRevival.

    Theprominentshedroofdormerwithmultiplewindows,extendedeaves,anddeepfrontporcharetypicalofaBungalow.

    ThisBungalowfeaturesintersectingroofswithoverhangingeavesaswellasadeepporch.

  • CityofNewOrleansHDLCBuildingTypesandArchitecturalStyles039

    ARCHITECTURALSTYLES

    CREOLE (1800S1840S)TheCreolestyle,whileoftenthoughtofasaFrenchColonialstyle, infact isanarchitectural style developed in New Orleans. It represents amelding of theFrench, Spanish and Caribbean architectural influences in conjunctionwith thedemandsofthehot,humidclimateofNewOrleans.AstheaestheticsofAmericanarchitecturewere acceptedwithin the Creole population, the style died out infavorofmorefashionablestyles.

    Hallmarks of the Creole style include simplicity, brick, stucco orweatherboardexteriorwalls, large sixover sixwindows, Frenchdoors,nodominantentrancesand shutters attachedwith strap hinges on allwindows and doors. In 2storyCreoletownhousesormixedusebuildings,fanlightsabovegroundfloorwindowsoftenopen toprovideventilationandcanprovide illumination toanentresolormezzanine.Unroofedsecondfloorgallerieswithwroughtironrailingswereoftenaddedafter1850.

    ItisunusualtofindbuildingswheretheCreolestyleisliberallymixedwithanotherarchitecturalstyle.Mostfrequently,onemightfindaCreolestylebuildingthathasbeenmodifiedbyplacingItalianatebracketsundergalleriesorroofoverhangs.

    Thissimplestuccoboxhasdeepoverhangsattheeaves.Windowsanddoorsareunderstatedandprotectedbyshutterswithstraphinges.

    Creoletownhousesoftenincludeacarriagewayasseenontheleftinsteadofaprominententrancedoor.Thesecondfloorgallerywasalateraddition.

  • 0310CityofNewOrleansHDLCBuildingTypesandArchitecturalStyles

    GREEKREVIVAL (1820S1860S)During the18thandearly19thcenturies, inboththenewly formedUnitedStatesand inEurope, the architecture and artsof the classicalworldwere adopted assymbols of democracy. The Greek Revival style is strongly associated in thepopularmindwiththesouthernUnitedStates,althoughitisastylethatappearedthroughoutthecountry.

    Hallmark elements of the style as it appears inNewOrleans includewide, flat,plain,often Greek keydesignorpedimented trimaroundwindowsanddoorsandfullheightporcheswithclassicalroundcolumnsorboxedpiers.Roofsmaybefront gabled or hipped, and porches may be topped with triangular, flat, orstepped pediments and/orwide, plain entablatures, oftenwith dentilmolding.Building finishesareusuallyplain instyle,and frequently theprimarycladding isstuccoorwoodscoredtolooklikestoneblocks.Originally,thesemayhavebeenpaintedintwocolorstomakethemmorecloselyresembleclassicalmasonry.

    TheGreekRevivalstyle isoftenassociatedwithmansions,plantationhousesandinstitutional or commercial buildings, but itwas also popular onmoremodestresidences,suchasCottagesandShotgunsofalltypes.

    ThisGreekRevivalresidencehasapedimentedporticowithdoubleheightroundcolumnsflankedbyboxedcornerpiers.

    ThisdoublegalleryissupportedbyflutedIoniccolumnswhicharemoredelicateinappearancethanthesquarepoststypicallyassociatedwithGreekRevivalbuildings.

  • CityofNewOrleansHDLCBuildingTypesandArchitecturalStyles0311

    ITALIANATE (1850S1880S)The Italianatestyle isa19thcentury interpretationof thearchitecturalmotifsofItalian Renaissance andNorthern Italian vernacular architecture. The stylewaspopularinEnglandandtheAmericanEastCoastbeginninginthe1840s,andtookholdinNewOrleansinthe1850s.Itwasaverypopularstyleduringthe1860sand1870s,andsomeof itselementsappeared inamixturewithotherstylesuntilatleast1900.

    CommoncharacteristicsoftheItalianatestyleincludetall,doublehung,fouroverfour, twoovertwo or twooverone windows with arched heads and hoodmoldings,symmetricalfacades,hippedroofs,frequentlyhiddenbehindaparapet.Italianatestylebuildingshavehorizontallyprotrudingeavesvisuallysupportedbybrackets,singleorpaired.Claddingonprimaryfacadesisusuallyweatherboardorwooddropbuttsiding,oftenwithweatherboardonsecondary facades. Cornersare typicallymarked bymolded or carved quoins, typically small raised blocksmountedonaflatboard.

    ElementsoftheItalianatestylecanbefoundmixedwithother, laterstyles,moststrikingly in the large number of bracketed shotgun type houses. This verypopularhybrid styleusually features oversized carvedor turnedwood bracketssupporting adeep frontoverhang, Italianatewindow forms,drop siding, carvedquoins,andQueenAnnegingerbreadembellishment.

    ThisbracketedshotgunhousehasItalianatebracketssupportingthedeepfrontoverhangabove.

    Thepostssupportingthedoublegalleryhavearchedbracketsandadeephorizontaloverhang,typicaloftheItalianatestyle.

  • 0312CityofNewOrleansHDLCBuildingTypesandArchitecturalStyles

    QUEENANNE/EASTLAKE (1870S1900S)The relatedQueenAnneandEastlake stylescame intovogue inNewOrleans inthe late1870s and continued tobe influentialuntil the firstdecadeof the20th

    century. These styles were wildly popular across the United States, spreadthrough the use of commonly available architectural pattern books andmadepossible by newmechanizedwoodworking techniques thatmade highly ornateembellishment fairly inexpensive. Elementsofboth stylesare similarandoftenintermixed.

    ThemoststrikingfeatureofQueenAnneandEastlakestyles isusuallytheuseofpierced, cut, turned, andotherpatternedwooden trim,quoins,brackets,porchposts and rails, often in conjunctionwithwooden shingle siding in a variety ofshapes and patterns. Highstyle Queen Anne and Eastlake style buildingsfrequently sportwraparoundporches, irregular floorplans, complex roofplans,baywindows,turretsortowers,patternedroofingshingles,decorativemetalridgecapsandatticvents,andmultilight,specialtyshapedorstainedglasswindows.

    New Orleans hasmany examples of highstyle Queen Anne and Eastlake stylebuildings,butthisnumber isdwarfedbytheprofusionofshotguntypedwellingsdecoratedwithQueenAnneorEastlakestyleelements. Theuseofthestylesonshotgunsrangesfrommodestturnedwoodbracketstoporchesandfrontfaadesthatarehighlyembellishedwithdecorativewoodwork.

    ThisQueenAnnehomehasadistinctiverooflinewithmultipledormersandacornerturret.

    ThisshotgunhasappliedQueenAnne/Eastlakebracketsattheporchcolumnsthatframethespantoappearlikeaseriesofarches.

  • CityofNewOrleansHDLCBuildingTypesandArchitecturalStyles0313

    Neoclassicalbuildingsoftenfeatureclassicallyinspireddetailssuchasflutedporchcolumns,ornatecornicesandpediments.

    Thedoublehungwindowfeaturesadecorativemultilightuppersashwithclassicallyinspiredsurround.

    COLONIALREVIVAL/NEOCLASSICALREVIVAL/EDWARDIAN(1870S1930S)TheColonialRevivalandNeoclassicalRevivalstylesbothowetheirinitialpopularityto international expositions, the Colonial Revival to the Centennial Exposition of1876 in Philadelphia and the Neoclassical to the 1893 Columbian Exposition inChicago.Eachrepresentsaresurgenceofinterestinarchitecturalstylesassociatedwith the symmetrical, classicallybased architecture popular in the 18th century.Edwardian style refers to design that became popular between 1890 and 1920whoseprimarydistinguishing characteristics are a relative simplicityof form anddetail,oftenembellishedwithelementsofColonialorNeoclassicalRevivaldetail.

    TheColonialRevivalstyleincludesstylisticmotifsthatincludeclassicalpilasters,sixover six double hung windows, egg and dart and dentil moldings, porchessupportedby classical columns, anddoors flankedby sidelights and toppedwithfanlights. Neoclassical Revival buildings tend to be more ornate than ColonialRevival,with flutedcolumns toppedbycomplexcapitals, friezesandentablaturesembellishedwithgarlandedorpatternedcarvingsandmassiveporticos.Edwardianstylehomes tend tobesimple rectangles inplan,1 to2stories inheight,withafrontorcrossgabledroofandsubdueddecorativeelements.

    ColonialandNeoclassicalRevivalstylisticmotifscanfrequentlybefoundmixedwithearlierVictorianstylesandsometimeswithlaterstyles,likeArtsandCrafts,andonshotguntyperesidences.

  • 0314CityofNewOrleansHDLCBuildingTypesandArchitecturalStyles

    ARTSANDCRAFTS (1900S1940S)TheArtsandCraftsstyle inNewOrleans isacombinationof influencesfromtheCaliforniaCraftsman style, theEnglishArtsandCrafts style,and thePrairiestylebungalowsof theMidWest. Earlyexamplesof thestylearrived inNewOrleansaround1900,but itwasmostpopular in the1920sand1930s. Commondesignthemesofthestyleinclude:theuseofunadornedstructuralbuildingparts,suchasraftertails,fasciaboards,androofandporchbeamsasdecorativeelements;theuse of natural or rustic materials such as wood shingle siding and eitherroughhewnmasonryor rusticatedconcreteblock,often incombination;and thepresenceofdeepporches,withrobustporchcolumnsandoverhangingeaves.

    In addition to these design elements, highstyle Arts and Crafts residencesfrequently have irregular bungalow floor plans; rectilinearwindow bays; heavy,horizontalmassing;windows composed ofmany small patterned panes and/orleaded glass windows; and, frequently, oversized windows under the porchoverhang. Theymayalsobe raisedahalfstoryabovegrade,withamasonryorstuccofoundationwall.

    Arts andCrafts shotguns are also fairly common inNewOrleans. Typically, onthesestructuresthestyleisexpressedthroughdoorsandwindowswithsquareorrectangularpanesorpatterns,plainshinglesorwoodcladdingandtaperedwoodporchcolumns,usuallywithmasonrybases.

    ThishighstyleArtsandCraftshomefeaturesexposedraftertailsandfasciaboards,variouswoodsidingfinishesanddeepporchesandoverhangs.

    ThisdoubleshotgunhasArtsandCraftsstylisticelementsincludingdeepoverhangingeaveswithdecorativefasciaboards.

  • CityofNewOrleansHDLCBuildingTypesandArchitecturalStyles0315

    ECLECTIC/EXOTICREVIVALS (1900S1950S)Beginninginthe1920s,populararchitecturebegantotakeformslooselyadaptedfrom real or imagined historical forms. A variety of homeswere builtwhosedesign drew inspiration from popular conceptions of Italian villas, Renaissancepalaces, medieval English cottages, Gothic Revival church buildings, SpanishMissionarchitectureandmanyotherpicturesquearchitecturalstyles.

    Assorted Revival styles can be found in New Orleans commercial andinstitutional architecture, as well as numerous homes. Homes in these stylesranged inscalefromthepalatialtoverysmallstarterhomes,butthemajorityofRevival stylehomeswerebuilt for themiddle class. Thematerials andmotifsused in these styleswere often scaled down from theoriginal inspiration, so aMission Revival cottage might feature a faux bell tower, a Norman Revivalfarmhousereducedto1,000sq.ft.,oraRenaissancepalazzotranslatedtoaonestory,1,200sq.ft.foothome.

    Astimewentby,thesestylesbecameeven lessfaithfultotheir inspirations,andthemotifsassociatedwiththembegantobetheonlyexpressionofthestyle.So,for example, a building thatwas essentially a smoothstuccoed rectangular boxcouldbecomeaSpanishColonialRevivalhomewiththeadditionofaSpanishtileroof,wrought ironwindowgrilles,andanarchedentryway,orpayhomage toaRenaissancepalazzobyaddingtwistedcolumnstowindowanddoorsurrounds.

    ThishomeisinspiredbyaMediterraneanvillaandincludesahippedterracottaroof,stuccowallsandverticalarchedwindowanddooropenings.

    Thiscornertowerfeaturehasapyramidalhippedroofcoveredwithredterracottatiles.Thetexturedstuccowallsareframedbysmoothquoins.

  • ThismaterialisbaseduponworkassistedbyagrantfromtheDepartmentoftheInterior,NationalParkService.Anyopinions,findings,andconclusions or recommendations expressed in thismaterial are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of theDepartmentoftheInterior.PreparedbyDominiqueM.Hawkins,AIA,LEEDAPofPreservationDesignPartnership,LLC inPhiladelphia,PA,andCatherineE.Barrier.BuildingtypedrawingsarelargelybasedonLloydVogtsNewOrleansArchitecture:AHouseWatchersGuide.

    0316CityofNewOrleansHDLCBuildingTypesandArchitecturalStyles May2011

    HIGHSTYLEVERSUSINDIVIDUALSTYLEAsownersmodifytheirpropertiestoreflecttheirpersonaltastes, it is not at all uncommon to see a building thatincludesmore than one style. When any given buildingwas designed, its owners worked with a builder orarchitect to create a structure that reflected both theirneeds and tastes,notone that fulfilled a checklist titledCreole Cottage or Greek Revival Townhouse. Somebuildings were designed by architects and others bybuilders, owners and commercially available plans.IndividualsmayhavepreferredpureGreekRevivalforms,whileothersmayhavewantedacopyofahousetheysawvisitingCaliforniaoron theMediterraneanCoast,withaporchjustlikeonetheysawonahousethatmorning,thewindowsfromanotherandtheroofofathird.

    Ifabuildingseemstohavealloftheelements listedhereunderCreoleCottagebutithas5openingsonthefrontfaadeinsteadof2or4,itismostlikelyanunusualCreoleCottage and not some other style or type of buildingentirely. IfabuildingappearstohavebothGreekRevivalandItalianatedetails,itisprobablyjustthatonestylewaswaning in popularity, as another was becoming morefashionable, and the person who built it thought theylooked nice together. Just because one building is acombination of two or three styles, another has all thecharacteristicsofastyle,andathird isabuildingwithnostyle tospeakofdoesnotmean thatoneof them isanymore historic or important than the other. Our Citysunmistakable architectural character is attained throughnotonly itsdiversityofbuildingtypesandstyles,butalsoeachbuildingsrelationshiptothosearoundit.

    ThishomefeaturesItalianatestyleelementsatthe2ndfloorandneoclassicalelements,suchastheporchcolumnsandfrieze,atthe1stfloor.

    ALTERATIONSTOBUILDINGTYPESANDSTYLESAtpropertieswheremodificationshavebeenmadeovertime, those changes, particularly thosemade before themid20thcentury,mayhavebecomesignificantcharacterdefining featuresof itsdevelopment. By contrast,morerecent changes, particularly those with inappropriatematerials or details, often compromise historic integrity.When considering alterations to a historic property,identifyingthebuildingtypeandstyleisacriticalfirststepinensuringasuccessfulresult.Simplystated:

    TheHDLCencouragestheremovalofinappropriatelaterchangestomakebuildingsandpropertiesmorehistoricallyappropriate.

    TheHDLCdiscouragesmodernchangesthatfurthercompromiseabuildingsorpropertyshistorictype,style,significanceandintegrity.

    INFORMATIONABOUTAPPROPRIATEALTERATIONSIf consideringalteringabuildingandwould likemoreinformationregardingwhethertheproposedchangeisappropriate for the building type or style, pleasecontact the HDLC at (504) 6587040 for moreinformation.

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