Building services-report

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<p> 1. SCHOOL OF ARCHITECTURE, BUILDING AND DESIGN BACHELOR OF QUANTITY SURVEYING (HONOURS) MARCH 2015 [BLD60503] BUILDING SERVICES 2 Assignment: Case Study Name ID CHEONG KHA MAN 0319456 ELEY CHONG SHU HUI 0319458 LOW CHEE YING 0319126 TAN CHUU YEE 0315097 TAN KAI SIN 0315213 Lecturer: Dr. Kam Kenn Jhun 2. Content N0 Title Page 1.0 Introduction 1 2.0 Existing Building Services Systems 3 2.1 Fire Protection System 3 2.2 Electricity Supply and Distribution System 19 2.3 Ventilation and Air Conditioning 21 2.4 Vertical Transportation System 28 3.0 Problems and Recommendations 32 3.1 Ventilation and Air Conditioning 32 3.2 Fire Protection System 36 3.3 Vertical Transportation 42 4.0 Conclusion 47 5.0 References 48 6.0 Appendix 51 3. Page | 1 1.0 Introduction 1.2 Introduction of Assignment This report is a case study about the building service systems in Giant Kelana Jaya Mall. In this report, we will interpret and analysis the systems used in this building. Next, we will compare and comment on the existing system with our recommendations and solutions. 1.2 Introduction to Building 1.2.1 Name of building Figure GiantKelanaJayaMall Source: 1.2.2 Location of building Diagram 33, Jalan SS 6/12, Kelana Jaya, 47301, Petaling Jaya, Selangor. 4. Page | 2 1.2.3 Description of building Giant Kelana Jaya Mall is a hypermarket which located opposite Paradigm Mall. The mall is accessible through LDP highway and Jalan SS6/2 via its main entrance. The mall is in rectangular design. It has three (3) floors and total 164 lots in this building, including 78 shop lots, 17 food court stalls, 27 pushcarts and also 42 promotion spaces. The mall has 1040 dedicated car park bays, which some are indoor parking and some are outdoor parking. All parking bays are located at ground floor. Diagram Availablelots. Source:;compID=8 Figure : Floor Plan of Giant Kelana Jaya Mall. 5. Page | 3 2.0 Building Services Systems in Giant Kelana Jaya Mall 2.1 Fire ProtectionSystem 2.1.1 Active Fire Protection System Introduction Fire Safe Europe (2011) states that Active Fire Protection is an integral part of any fire safety strategy; require mechanical, electric or electronic activation in order to work. Active fire protection system is widely used in process industries for protection of storage vessels, process plant, loading installations and ware house. The obligation of the fire protection system may be to control the fire, extinguish the fire or provide experience protection to avoid domino impacts. Active fire protection divided into few categories, like fire alarm, detectors for heat and smoke, wet and dry risers, hose reels, CO2 fixed installation and sprinkle system. Below are lists of active systems that are found in Giant Hypermarket Kelana Jaya. Fire Detection Systems and Alarm Devices According to research, fire detection and alarm systems are intended to provide cautioning of the episode of flame and allow proper fire-fighting action to be taken before the condition get out of control. There are two ways which are automatically and manually operation that shows how fire alarm systems operate. Automatic operation is mainly through the detector like smoke and heat detector. Besides, manual operation is by breaking the glass at the call point. a) Smoke Detector Figure Smoke detector found in Giant Hypermarket Smoke spreads very fast and it can overawed human in seconds. Smoke will cause us not able to see and we might have trouble in breathing. Hence, smoke detector is required in any building. It works by a small radioactive source that emits ions to charged electrodes. The 6. Page | 4 smoke of fire actually disturbs the flow of ions or the passage of light. Thus, it initiates the detector. b) Fire Alarm Bell Figure Fire alarm bell in Giant Hypermarket The fire alarm bells in Giant Kelana Jaya Mall are activated by the fire detector throughout the building. The sound produced by the fire alarm bell in distinctive which is not be confused with some other similar audible signals used for other purposes. As the building is large, sounding the alarm system is activated on a phased basis to avoid crowding in the escape route. For those alarm which nearest the fire will be warned first. There are two type of fire alarm bell which are continuous bells and single-stroke bells. As research, we found that Giant mall is using the continuous type of fire alarm bell. Continuous bells have a component inside which utilizes an electronic loop got back to a solenoid to force a mallet. At the point when the mallet backtracks, it separates the circuit and bringing on the solenoid to give up, sending the sledge into the gong and ringing it. When the hammer moves forward, it reconnects the circuit, which pulls the sledge back once more. It proceeds with this cycle until the force is detached. c) One-shot Ceiling Speaker Figure One-shot ceiling speaker inside Giant Hypermarket 7. Page | 5 The one-shot speaker acts as a fire alarm signalling device in Giant Kelana Jaya Mall and it is mostly found inside the market of the building. One Shot ceiling speakers are ideal for use in a wide range of applications including Emergency Warning Systems (EWS), Background Music and Public Address (PA) paging within shopping centres, offices and hotels. For different circumstance, Giant Hypermarket use one-shot ceiling speaker as Emergency Warning Systems. Others way, stuff can also control the speaker from the control room. d) Fire Control Room Figure Fire control room in Giant Kelana Jaya Mall Figure A map show the fire control room in Giant Kelana Jaya Mall A fire control room shall be provided for all commercial buildings and apartment buildings. As fire department stated that the exterior door shall be full size and obviously marked Fire Control Room with a minimum 3 letters different in colour to their background. The room must be provided with permanent and emergency lighting. Also, it stated that two keys of each of the following shall be located in an approved Knox box attached straight adjacent to each fire control room, fire control room, manual pull stations, fire alarm control panel, breakaway lock for PIV and building entrance keys. The fire control room of Giant Mall is located at the ground floor level of building which is near to the basement car park. 8. Page | 6 Fireman Intercom System Fireman Intercom System provides a two1way communication between remote areas and the fire command centre in a building. The system consist a master control console and remote control handsets are located at the designated areas. a) Master Control Console and Remote Control Handsets Figure2.1.1.3a Master Control console According to the research, the master control console should be comprises a master handset, a system control module and zone control module. The master handset is used to interconnect with the remote handsets. The exciting of the handset will allow the operator to have control of the master control console. It is located in the control room of Giant Mall. Figure 'Telefon Bomba Api' which is located outside the genset room 9. Page | 7 b) Fire Break Glass Call Point Figure Fire Break Glass Call Point in Giant A fire break glass point is a device that enables the occupant to raise the alarm when there is fire. Occupants just want to halt the glass, which is breakable element and there it will activate the alarm system. Below are some guidance for the correct placing and positioning a fire break glass call point (Fire Action LTD, 2014). It should be placed on the exit routes and in particular on the floor landings of staircase and at all exits to the open air. Call points should usually be fixed at a height of 1.4m above the floor, at easily accessible, well-illuminated and conspicuous position free from obstruction. It should also be located so that no person needs to travel more than 45m from any position within the premises in order to give an alarm (30m if layout is unknown). The method of operation of all call points in an installation should be identical unless there is a special reason for differentiation. 10. Page | 8 c) Fireman Switch Figure Fireman switch which is located at the emergency staircase The fire fighter switch is a specific switch-disconnector / isolator. These switches can frequently be seen on the outside mass of shops, commercial enterprises or business structures. They are utilized by fire fighters to kill neon lighting or other electrical hardware in the event of flame to keep the overheated gear from blasting. Next, it is used for breaking of low voltage circuit for exterior and interior sign and luminaries. Moreover, it can also be used to runt the under voltage release or shunt trip in the main incoming breaker. If there is a fire in the building, the fireman uses an insulated rod to pull the handle which isolates the utility supply to the building (ABB.2012). d) Emergency Light Figure Emergency Light in Giant 11. Page | 9 Figure 'keluar' signage Emergency light is lighting for an emergency position when the main power supply is cut and any normal lighting fails. It is required to operate fully mechanically and give illumination of a suitably high level to enable all occupants to leave the premises safely. Emergency lighting is a general term and is sub-divided into emergency escape lighting and standby lighting (Fire Safety Advice Centre, 2011) Emergency escape lighting It provides illumination for the safety of people leaving a location or attempting to terminate a potentially dangerous process beforehand. This emergency escape lighting can be easily found in Giant Mall which is located on the top of every exit door. The minimum duration for the emergency escape lighting is one hour. Standby lighting It enables normal activities to continue substantially unchanged when there is a fire. This guide does not include standby lighting as it is not a legal requirement and is a facility that may or may not be needed, depending on the use and occupancy of the premises. Standby lighting can be found on every floor of the walkway in Giant Mall. Water Based Systems a) Sprinkler There are different types of sprinkler but the two types of water sprinkler found in Giant Kelana Jaya Mall are recessed pendent sprinkler and upright sprinkler. 12. Page | 10 Figure Recessed pendant sprinkler Recessed pendant sprinkler is hanging from the pipe which heads hang down from the ceiling. Its water deflector is placed at the bottom and it spreads water in a circular pattern. Recessed pendant sprinklers are found in front of the shop walkway of Giant Mall as the obstruction to spray water is minimal. Also, recessed pendant sprinkler has higher water flow speed than upright sprinkler as the radial water pattern flow begins between sprinkler orifice and the deflector whereas upright sprinkler is between the orifice and somewhat above the deflector. Figure Upright Sprinkler 13. Page | 11 Figure upright sprinkler ( Upright sprinkler stands atop a pipeline which heads project up into a space. Generally, it is used in mechanical rooms or other inaccessible areas to provide better coverage between obstructions. Besides, it has a water deflector on the top so that water coming out of the orifice shoots upward and spread in a circular pattern like pendent sprinkler. b) Dry riser As research, dry riser is an internal fire hydrant for firemen to use. Basically, it is a straight vertical pipe fixed to the highest point of the building and accessible at every floor level through a landing valve. It required when topmost floor of building is higher than 18.3m and lower than 30.5m above the fire appliance access level. Giant Mall uses dry riser system as the building consists only 3 floors including the basement which is less then 30.5m. The dry risers are normally dry and depend on fire engine to pump water into the system. The breeching inlet for Giant Mall using is 4-Way breeching inlet for 150mm diameter pipe. Figure landing valve located at ground floor Figure 4-way breeching inlet located at ground floor in giant 14. Page | 12 c) Pumps Pumps are expected to give satisfactory supply of water to every riser at all times. Every pump is fit to convey a base stream rate of 15 liter/s (Frederick, 1998). All the pumps are associated in parallel, with their suctions for all time "wet" when the tank is filled. Figure fire pump found in giant d) Water Storage Tank Figure water storage tank on the top floor of giant The fire water storage tank is located at top floor of Giant Mall in the space above the building. The sprinkler system and the hose reel system use the same water. The quantity of water plus the amount needed to satisfy daily peak demands is available in fire water storage tank. 15. Page | 13 e) External fire hydrant MFPA (2008) stated that fire hydrant system consists of a system of pipe work connected directly to the water supply to provide water to each and every hydrant outlet. It is proposed to provide water for the firemen to fight a fire. The water is discharged into the fire engine form which it is then pumped and squirted over fire. It also stated that where the water supply is not reliable or inadequate, hydrant pumps should be provided to pressurize the fire mains. Figure external fire hydrant found around the giant There are 7 number of external fire hydrants found around Giant Mall. Each of the fire hydrants is placed between 85m from another. Besides, 2 number of fire hydrants opposite the building which is right beside the road to ease the fire brigade access their input hose. The fire hydrant found is a two-way fire hydrant which is made up of cast iron that could withstand high water pressure. f) Hose reels system Hose reels intended for occupant to use during early stage of fire and it must be sited in position where they can be used without exposing user to danger from fire, for example, staircase. Figure hose reel which located beside the staircase 16. Page | 14 Figure Plan shown the location where hose reels located g) Fire extinguisher The staffs in the building are trained to use it and these appliances need to be regularly maintained by the suppliers. Figure Different type of fire extinguisher ( 17. Page | 15 There are only two types of fire extinguisher found in Giant Mall which are carbon dioxide and powder. Powder type of extinguisher suitable for mixed fire risk environments and are especially suited for flammable liquid...</p>