building services handbook

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Butterworth-Heinemann An imprint of Elsevier Science Linacre House, Jordan Hill, Oxford 0X2 8DP 200 Wheeler Road, Burlington, MA 01803 First published 2001 Reprinted 2001, 2002 Second edition 2003 Copyright 2003, Roger Greeno and Fred Hall. All rights reserved The right of Roger Greeno and Fred Hall to be identified as the authors of this work has been asserted in accordance with the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988 No part of this publication may be reproduced in any material form (including photocopying or storing in any medium by electronic means and whether or not transiently or incidentally to some other use of this publication) without the written permission of the copyright holder except in accordance with the provisions of the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988 or under the terms of a licence issued by the Copyright Licensing Agency Ltd, 90 Tottenham Court Road, London, England W1T 4LP. Applications for the copyright holder's written permission to reproduce any part of this publication should be addressed to the publisher. Permissions may be sought directly from Elsevier's Science and Technology Rights Department in Oxford, UK: phone: ( + 44) (0) 1865 843830; fax: ( + 44) (0) 1865 853333; e-mail; You may also complete your request on-line via the Elsevier Science homepage (, by selecting 'Customer Support' and then 'Obtaining Permissions'. British Library Cataloguing in Publication Data A catalogue record for this title is available from the British Library ISBN 0 7506 6143 7 For information on all Butterworth-Heinemann publications visit our website at Typeset by Keyword Typesetting Services Ltd, Wallington, Surrey Printed and bound in Great Britain by Biddies Ltd.


Fred Halland

Roger Greeno











CONTENTSPreface xi Part One Cold Water and Supply Systems 1Rain cycle sources of water supply 1 Filtration of water 4 Sterilisation and softening 5 Storage and distribution of water 6 Valves and taps 7 Joints on water pipes 10 Water mains 11 Direct system of cold water supply 14 Indirect system of cold water supply 15 Backflow protection 16 Secondary backflow protection 17 Cold water storage cisterns 18 Cold water storage calculations 19 Boosted cold water systems 20 Delayed action float valve 23 Pipe sizing by formula 24 Pipe sizes and resistances 25 Hydraulics and fluid flow 28

Part Two Hot Water Supply Systems 31Direct system of hot water supply 33 Indirect system of hot water supply 34 Unvented hot water storage system 35 Expansion and temperature relief valves 36 Hot water storage cylinders 37 Primatic hot water storage cylinder 38 Medium and high rise building supply systems 39 Types of boiler 41 Secondary circulation 44 Duplication of plant 45 Electric and gas water heaters 46 Solar heating of water 52 Hot water storage capacity 53 Boiler rating 54 Pipe sizing 55 Circulation pump rating 57 Legionnaires' disease in hot water systems 58 SEDBUK 59

Part Three Heating Systems 61Heat emitters 63 Low temperature, hot water heating systems 66

Panel heating 73 Expansion facilities in heating systems 75 Expansion vessels 76 Solar space heating 77 High temperature pressurised hot water systems 78 Steam heating systems 80 District heating 84 Combined heat and power 87 Expansion of pipework 88 Thermostatic control of heating systems 90 Timed control of heating systems 91 Energy management systems 96 Warm air heating system 98 Heating design 99 'U'@ values 99

Part Four Fuel Characteristics and Storage 109Fuels factors affecting choice 111 Solid fuel properties and storage 112 Domestic solid fuel boilers 114 Solid fuel - flues 115 Oil properties 118 Oil storage and supply 119 Oil-fired burners 121 Oil - f l u e s 124 Natural gas - properties 126 Liquid petroleum gas properties and storage 127 Electric boiler 129 Electricity electrode boiler 130

Part Five Ventilation Systems 131Ventilation requirements 133 Guide to ventilation rates 134 Domestic accommodation 135 Non-domestic buildings 137 Mechanical ventilation 143 Types of fan 145 Fan laws 146 Sound attenuation in ductwork 147 Air filters 148 Low velocity air flow in ducts 150 Air diffusion 151 Ventilation design 152 Resistances to air flow 159

Part Six Air Conditioning 161Air conditioning principles and applications 163 Central plant system 164 Air processing unit 165 Humidifiers 166 Variable air volume 167

Induction (air/water) system 168 Fan coil (air/water) unit and induction diffuser 169 Dual duct system 170 Cooling systems 171 Packaged air conditioning systems 175 Psychrometrics processes and applications 177 Heat pumps 184 Heat recovery devices 186 Health considerations and building related illnesses 187

Part Seven Drainage Systems, Sewage Treatment and Refuse Disposal 189Combined and separate systems 191 Partially separate system 192 Rodding point system 193 Sewer connection 194 Drainage ventilation 195 Drain laying 198 Means of access 199 Bedding of drains 204 Drains under or near buildings 206 Joints used on drain pipes 207 Anti-flood devices 208 Garage drainage 209 Drainage pumping 210 Subsoil drainage 213 Tests on drains 216 Soakaways 217 Cesspools and septic tanks 218 Drainage fields and mounds 223 Drainage design 227 Waste and refuse processing 235

Part Eight Sanitary Fitments and Appliances: Discharge and Waste Systems 241Flushing cisterns, troughs and valves 243 Water closets 248 Bidets 250 Showers 251 Baths 255 Sinks 256 Wash basins and troughs 258 Urinals 260 Hospital sanitary appliances 262 Sanitary conveniences 263 Traps and waste valve 265 Single stack system and variations 269 One- and two-pipe systems 273 Pumped waste system 275 Wash basins waste arrangements 276 Waste pipes from washing machines and dishwashers 277 Air test 278

Sanitation - data 279 Offsets 281 Ground floor appliances - high rise buildings 282 Fire stops and seals 283 Flow rates and discharge units 284 Sanitation design - discharge stack sizing 286

Part Nine Gas Installation, Components and Controls 287Natural gas - combustion 289 Mains gas supply and installation 290 Gas service pipe intake 292 Meters 296 Gas controls and safety features 298 Gas ignition devices and burners 304 Purging and testing 305 Gas appliances 308 Balanced flue appliances 311 Open flue appliances 314 Flue blocks 317 Flue terminals 318 Flue lining 320 Shared flues 321 Fan assisted gas flues 324 Ventilation requirements 326 Flue gas analysis 328 Gas consumption 329 Gas pipe sizing 330

Part Ten Electrical Supply and Installations 331Three-phase generation and supply 333 Electricity distribution 334 Intake to a building 336 Earthing systems and bonding 337 Consumer unit 340 Power and lighting circuits 341 Overload protection 347 Electric wiring 350 Testing completed installation 353 Cable rating 355 Diversity 356 Domestic and industrial installations 357 Electric space heating 360 Space heating controls 364 Construction site electricity 365 Light sources, lamps and luminaires 367 Lighting controls 374 Extra-low-voltage lighting 376 Lighting design 377 Daylighting 379 Telecommunications installation 384

Part Eleven Mechanical Conveyors Lifts, Escalators and Travelators 385 Planning lift installations 387 Electric lifts 389 Roping systems 389 Controls 391 Lift doors 394 Machine room and equipment 395 Safety features 396 Installation details 397 Dimensions 398 Paternoster lifts 399 Oil-hydraulic lifts 400 Lifting arrangements and installation 400 Pumping unit 402 Estimating the number of lifts required 404 Firefighting lifts 405 Builders' and electricians' work 407 Escalators 409 Travelators 411 Stair lifts 412

Part Twelve Fire Prevention and Control Services 413Sprinklers 415 Drenchers 424 Hose reels 425 Hydrants 426 Foam installations 428 Gas extinguishers 430 Fire alarms 432 Smoke, fire and heat detectors 434 Electrical alarm circuits 438 Fire dampers in ductwork 441 Pressurisation of escape routes 442 Smoke extraction, ventilation and control 443 Portable fire extinguishers 446

Part Thirteen Security Installations 449Intruder alarms 451 Micro-switch and magnetic reed 452 Radio sensor, pressure mat and taut wiring 453 Acoustic, vibration and inertia detectors 454 Ultrasonic and microwave detectors 455 Active infra-red detector 456 Passive infra-red detector 457 Lightning protection systems 458

Part Fourteen Accommodation for Building Services 461Ducts for engineering services 463 Floor and skirting ducts 464

Medium and large vertical ducts 465 Medium and large horizontal ducts 466 Subways or walkways 467 Penetration of fire structure by pipes 468 Raised access floors 469 Suspended and false ceilings 470

Part Fifteen Alternative and Renewable Energy 471Alternative energy 473 Wind power 474 Fuel cells 476 Water power 477 Geothermal power 478 Solar power 479 Biomass or biofuel 480

Part Sixteen Appendices 481Appendix Appendix Appendix Appendix Appendix Appendix 1 2 3 4 5 6 Glossary of common abbreviations 483 Graphical symbols for pipework 485 Identification of pipework 486 Graphical symbols for electrical installation work 488 Metric units 489 - Conversion of common imperial units to metric 492

Index 494

PREFACEThe capital and installation costs of building services in modern buildings can take up 50% of the total construction budget. For highly serviced buildings such as sports centres, this figure can easily exceed 75%. Services can als