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  • 1. Timeline1865-1895Ashleigh Parton Period 1

2. Frederick Law Olmsted-Exoduster- He and other architects African Americans who like Calvert Vaux helpedmigrated from the South to draw up a plan called the Kansas in the years after "Greensward" which wasReconstruction. During this selected to become nowup to 600,000 families took known as Central Park. He advantage of the also started the movement governments offers and for planned urban parks most were exodusters. 1850185718621862Bessemer Process-Homestead Act:Henry Bessemer and This was a U.S. law that wasAmerican ironmaker enacted to provide 160 acresWilliam Kelly started usingin the West to any citizen orthis process. This process intended citizen who wasis when interjecting air head of the household andchanges into molten iron would cultivate the land forto remove the carbon and five years. This led to a recordother impurities.number of U.S. settlers claiming private property which had before been reserved for Native American use 3. Urbanization-This is a growthof cities thatmainly occurs inthe regions of theNortheast andMidwest. 19th Century 18641867Patronage- Sand CreekOliver Kelley-This is theMassacre- He started the Patronsprocess of givingThis was known as one ofof Husbandry whichgovernment jobsthe most tragic events in was an organization for history. As the Cheyannefarmers that becameto people who believed they were underhad helped the protection they returned to known mainly as thecandidate getSand Creek in Colorado forGrange. The mainelected. the winter. John Chivington purpose was to be a showed up with his troops social outlet and an and the attack on educational spot for November 29 killed over isolated farm families. 150 inhabitants that were mostly women and children. 4. Transcontinental Railroad-Trust-This is a railroad line thatPeople who took part in alinked the Atlantic and trust turned their stockPacific Coasts of the U.S.over to a group ofThis is when the first onetrustees, which werewas completed and after thatpeople who ran seperateothers followed including companies but were stillregional lines. At the start of apart of one largethe Civil War the nation hadcooperation. They wereabout 30,000 miles of track.not legal mergers. 18681869 18701870Tammany Hall-John D. Rockefeller-A powerful He established the Standardpolitical machineOil Company and in the year 1870 the companyfor Democratic processed 2 or 3% of theparty that Bosscountrys crude oil and withinTweed became a decade controlled 90%.head of. It wasHe kept a lot of his assetslocated in New but gave away 500 millionYork City. dollars to the Rockefeller Foundation which provided funds to found the University of Chicago and created a medical institute that helped to find a cure for yellow fever. 5. Civil Service-Alexander Graham Is the action ofBell- governmentInvented the telephone administration should and with this opened a go to the most qualifiedworldwide person, many believed communication that it shouldnt matternetwork. Not only did it what political views they affect office work, but had or whoit also created a job for recommended them. women18701871 1874 1876Jacob Riis-Great Plains- Telephone-He left Denmark for theDuring this periodThis was invented byU.S. and became aFederal governmentAlexander Grahampolice reporter in New set up and passed anBell. This inventionYork City. He wasact that designated opened up worldwideshocked at the the entire Great plains communication andconditions of how overly as one enormous started something bigcrowded it was and how reservation or land set for not only men butfilthy it was. He used his aside for Nativewomen in the workingtalented slaves to showAmerican Tribes.industry. Thisthe awfulness of New invention benefittedYorks poor createdmany jobs also.place. 6. Battle of Little Bighorn-National FarmersIn early June this event Alliance-occurred, Colonel ClusterThis was originated bywith his troops reached thethe Grange groups andLittle Bighorn river the many others whoNative Americans weresympathized forwaiting. Leading them wasfarmers. Lecturers wereCrazy Horse, Gall, and sent to towns all over toSiting Bull. They crushedtalk to people aboutCluster and in an hour theytopics such as lowerwere dead. interest rates. 1876 1876 1879During 1870sThomas Alva Edison- DumbbellHe was a pioneer on the Tenements-new industrial frontier These were known aswhen he established the overcrowded and1st research laboratory unsanitary multifamilyin the world in New dwellings. As theJersey. he then working class leftperfected the immigrants took overincandescent light bulb their old homes andand later invented a1-3 families wouldsystem for producingoccupy living space.and distributingelectricity. 7. Longhorns-Melting Pot- The Texas longhornsMany Native-born were animals thatAmericans saw their were sturdy, shortcountry as this. It is a tempered breeds thatmixture of people of were mainly arounddifferent cultures and dry grasslands ofraces who blended Southern Spain.together by abandoning Many Spanish settlerstheir native languages and raised them for food.customs.During 1870s1869-1871 Late 1870s Tweed Ring-Grange- This was led by Boss TweedMark Twain-These were earlier and it was a group of corrupt Real name was Samuelknown as Patrons of politicians, who wanted toLanghorne Clemens. HeHusbandry which was a defraud the city. inspired a host of other youngsocial and educational authors when he declared hisorganization which independence of "literaturefarmers attempted to and all that bosh." Many of hiscombat the power of books have became famousrailroads. During this American literature like theperiod members spent a novel The Adventures oflot of time fighting Huckleberry Finn.railroads. 8. Booker T. Washington-Segregation-In this period of time heThis was the process of headed the the Tuskegeeseparating whites and Normal and Industrialblacks in private or even Institute which is now calledpublic facilities. This was the Tuskegee University input into effect in schools, Alabama. This was aimed tohospitals, parks andequip African Americanstransportation systems in with teaching diplomas andthe South. South passed useful skills in agriculture,racial laws known as Jimdomestic, and mechanicalCrow laws.work. 1870/1880s1850-1880 1881 Gaft-Jim Crow Laws- Soddy- This was when aLaws that were usedA home that was political machinein the South tobuilt of blocks of turf. got its candidates separate blacks andThis was mostly into office it could whites. This was warm in the winter take advantage ofnamed this after anand cold in the many old minstrel song that summer. These opportunities forended in "Jump, Jimwere mainly small the illegal use of Crow." Racialand offered little political influencesegregation was putlight and air. Many for personal gain. into effectanimals roamed ineverywhere withthese. They usedthese laws.them mostly during this time period. 9. Colored Farmers Alliance- Joseph Pulitzer-Collective In this alliance the people Bargaining- He was a hungarianpromoted cooperation immigrant who had beenA negotiation between whites and blacks.between very active in the New York Most members accepted the world. He pioneered popular representatives of separations of thelabor and innovations such as a large organizations. This was sunday edition, comics, management to organized by a white baptistreach written sports coverage, andmissionary named R. M. womens news. Papersagreements on Humphrey who had to workwages, hours, and would emphasize "sin, sex,secretly to try and avoid and sensation." Which was working conditions. racially motivated alliances. an attempt to surpass competition.188118831886Assimilation-A plan underSamuel Gompers-which Native Led the cigar makersAmericans wouldinternational union togive up theirjoin with other craftbeliefs and way of unions during thislife and becomeperiod in history.part of of the whiteculture. During thisperiod of timemanysympathizersstarted supportingit. 10. George Eastman-In this period of time heintroduced the Kodak camera.The purchase of it was 25dollars and included 100picture roll film. After takingthe pictures the photographerwould send the camera backto Eastmans factory inRochester New York where itcost 10 dollars to develop andare returned reloaded. 1887 1888Dawes Act-Poll Tax- Grandfather Clause-This law wasAn annual tax that had to This was a clause thatpassed by be paid before qualifying stated that even if a mancongress with the to vote. Black and whitefailed the literacy test orinitial aim tosharecroppers werecould not afford to pay"Americanize" the most often too poor tothe poll tax, he was stillNative Americanspay the poll tax and so entitled to vote if he, hisby distributing many Southern Statesfather, or his grandfatherreservation land to issued the Grandfatherhad been eligible to voteindividual owners.Clause in their before January 1, 1867.constitutions to help outthe Whites so they couldvote. 11. Ellis Island- New York harbor located. Kickback- About 20% of immigrants here These were illegal were detained for a day or payments that were more before inspected. Onlymade for workers 2% were denied entry. Theservices that enriched process could take up to 5 the political machines hours. During this period in and individual time, the island was the chief politicians. immigration place in the U.S. estimated 17 million went through here.18891880sJane Addams-She confoundedChicagos Hull Political Machine-House during thisThis machine offeredperiod of time. Sheservices to voters andwas also antiwar businesses in exchangeactivist, afor political or financialspokesperson for support.racial justice, and anadvocate for quality-of-life issues. 12. Settlement House-Sherman Antitrust Act-Establishing this was a fewThis act made it illegal to form areformers, these weretrust that interfered with freecommunity centers in slumtrade between states or withneighborhoods that providedother countries. It was hard forassistance to people in thepeople to prosecute howeverarea. Many immigrant because of the word trust.settlement workers lived in thisarea so that they could learnfirsthand about problems withurbanization and find ways tofix it.Late 1800s 1890Social Darwinism-Wounded Knee-An economic and social This occurred when the 7thphilosophy supposedlycavalry rounded up around 350based on the biologist sioux and took them to a camp atCharles Darwin theory of wounded knee creek. The nextevolution by natural day soldiers commanded Nativeselection. This holds theAmericans to surrender and aidea that a system withshot from an unknown spot wasunrestrained competition fired. The cavalry slaughteredwill ensure the survival of300 unarmed Native Americansthe fittest. which included children. The battle brought the Indian wars and entire era to a end. 13. Scab- Eugene V. Debs- During this period of timeHe attempted to form an industrial Henry Clay Frickunion which would be the American announced plan to cut Railway union. Some people felt as wages. He hired armed though everyone should be included guards to protect the meaning unskilled or skilled in a plant so that he could hire specific industry. Most of the new scabs or people known asmembers happened to be strikebreakers to keep it semiskilled and unskilled but skilled operating.engineers and firemen joined too. 1892 1894Ida B. Wells-Socialism-She was born into slavery alittle before emancipation, An economical andshe moved to Memphis to political based onwork as a teacher and later government control ofbecame an editor to local business and propertypaper. Racial justice was a and equal distributionmain theme. Three African of wealth.American businessmen whoshe was friends with werelynched which they wereillegally executed withouttrial. 14. William Jennings Bryan-William Randolph Hearst-Although he was also in this Had purchased the New Yorkelection, representing the Morning Journal already ownedDemocrats, he was also known the San Francisco Examinerfor his great speech calledwanted to outdo Pulitzer by filling"Cross of Gold" He won the the Journal with exaggeratedDemocratic nomination with thistales of personal scandals,speech. He carried most of the cruelty, hypnotism, andSouth and the farm votes of theimaginary conquest of Mars.Middle West. He only receivedDuring this year the circulation of6.5 million votes in the campaigneach paper had reached more than a million copies a day.1896 1898 William McKinley- Plessy vs. Ferguson- In this year he was in theIn this case the supreme campaign where he was court ruled that the nominated by theseparation of races in Republican party. He wouldpublic places was legal campaign from his backand did not violate the porch and thousands of well-14th amendment known people traveled the decision. Allowed states country speaking for him. Heto remain segregated in got around 7 million votesfacilities for blacks and and carried the East. Withwhites. his election populism collapsed. 15. Angel Island- Orville and Wilbur Asians were the ones whoWright- primarily went here. In San This was when the Wright Francisco bay, during these brothers had their first years about 50,000 Chinesesuccessful flight at Kitty immigrants entered the U.S. Hawk , North Carolina through this area. They would where the glider covered have to go through long 120 feet and lasted 12 questioning and a longseconds. within two years detention in a filthy place.increased their flight to 24 miles.1899 1890s 19011903Andrew Carnegie- Monopoly-In this year he had managedComplete control overto create the Carnegie Steel its industrys production,Company that manufacturedwages, and prices. Onemore steel than all the otherway to create one wasfactories in Great Britain. He to set up a holdingattempted to control ascompany , a corporationmuch of the industry as he that did nothing but buycould. He controlled the at the stock of otherentire thing until he endedcompanies.up selling it in 1901. 16. Debt Peonage-A system in which people bondlaborers into slavery in order towork off a debt to the employer.Not until this period in time didthe Supreme Court declareinvoluntary peonage a violation ofthe 13th amendment. SomeMexicans and African Americansin the Southwest were forced intothis.1905 1911W.E.B. Dubois-In this period of time hefounded the Niagaramovement which insisted thatblacks should seek liberal artseducation so that the AfricanAmerican community wouldhave more well-educatedleaders. 17. I would like to thank google images at www.google.images.com and I would alsolike to thank http://en. wikipedia.org for letting me use their images for my timeline