Bubble power

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BUBBLEPOWER

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<ul><li> SEMINARSEMINAR ONON BUBBLEBUBBLE POWERPOWER THE REVOLUTIONARYTHE REVOLUTIONARY NEWNEW ENERGY SOURCEENERGY SOURCE BY:BY: VISHNU.SVISHNU.S ROLL.NO.4428ROLL.NO.4428 S7.MES7.ME </li> <li> INTRODUCTIONINTRODUCTION Sonofusion Research team from variousSonofusion Research team from various organizations have joined forces to createorganizations have joined forces to create acoustic fusion technology energy consortiumacoustic fusion technology energy consortium (AFTEC) to promote the development of(AFTEC) to promote the development of sonofusion.sonofusion. It was derived from a related phenomenon,It was derived from a related phenomenon, sonoluminescence.sonoluminescence. Sonofusion involves tiny bubbles imploded bySonofusion involves tiny bubbles imploded by sound waves can make hydrogen nuclei fuse-andsound waves can make hydrogen nuclei fuse-and may one day become a revolutionary new energymay one day become a revolutionary new energy source.source. </li> <li> SONOLUMINESCENCESONOLUMINESCENCE When a gas bubble in liquid is excited byWhen a gas bubble in liquid is excited by ultrasonic acoustic waves, it can emit shortultrasonic acoustic waves, it can emit short flashes of light suggestive of extremeflashes of light suggestive of extreme temperatures inside the bubble.temperatures inside the bubble. These flashes of light, known asThese flashes of light, known as sonoluminescence, occur as the bubblesonoluminescence, occur as the bubble implodes, or cavitates.implodes, or cavitates. Chemical reactions occurs .Chemical reactions occurs . </li> <li> THE IDEA OF SONOFUSIONTHE IDEA OF SONOFUSION Technically known as acoustic inertial confinementTechnically known as acoustic inertial confinement fusion.fusion. In this piezoelectric crystal attached to a liquid-filledIn this piezoelectric crystal attached to a liquid-filled flask send pressure waves through the fluid, excitingflask send pressure waves through the fluid, exciting the motion of tiny gas bubbles.the motion of tiny gas bubbles. High temperatures and pressure speculated at theHigh temperatures and pressure speculated at the bubble core .bubble core . This leading to conditions suitable for thermonuclearThis leading to conditions suitable for thermonuclear fusion.fusion. </li> <li> EXPERIMENTAL SET UPEXPERIMENTAL SET UP </li> <li> BASIC REQUIREMENTSBASIC REQUIREMENTS Pyrex flaskPyrex flask Vacuum pumpVacuum pump Piezoelectric crystalPiezoelectric crystal Wave generatorWave generator AmplifierAmplifier Neutron generatorNeutron generator Neutron and gamma ray detectorNeutron and gamma ray detector PhotomultiplierPhotomultiplier Microphone &amp; speakerMicrophone &amp; speaker </li> <li> HOW SONOFUSION WORKSHOW SONOFUSION WORKS Action of vacuum pump.Action of vacuum pump. Fill the flask with deuterated acetone.Fill the flask with deuterated acetone. For initiation an oscillating voltage of 20kHzFor initiation an oscillating voltage of 20kHz applied to the ring.applied to the ring. Fire a pulsed neutron generator.Fire a pulsed neutron generator. </li> <li> EXPERIMENTAL SET UPEXPERIMENTAL SET UP </li> <li> ACTION IN THE FLASKACTION IN THE FLASK Stage (1)Stage (1) Neutrons flying throughNeutrons flying through the flask create a bubblethe flask create a bubble cluster in the deuteratedcluster in the deuterated acetone liquid.acetone liquid. </li> <li> Stage (2)Stage (2) The negative pressure inThe negative pressure in the liquid makes thethe liquid makes the bubbles swell 100000bubbles swell 100000 times in size (from nanotimes in size (from nano to millimeter-scale).to millimeter-scale). </li> <li> Stage (3)Stage (3) The liquid pressureThe liquid pressure turns positive andturns positive and compresses thecompresses the bubble, causing thembubble, causing them to implode with greatto implode with great violence.violence. </li> <li> Stage(4)Stage(4) The implosion createsThe implosion creates an instantaneousan instantaneous pressure of 10 trillionpressure of 10 trillion kilopascals andkilopascals and temperature of moretemperature of more than 100 millionthan 100 million degree C, making thedegree C, making the deuterium fusedeuterium fuse.. </li> <li> EXPERIMENTAL SET UPEXPERIMENTAL SET UP </li> <li> FUSION REACTIONFUSION REACTION Deuterium-Deuterium fusion has two probableDeuterium-Deuterium fusion has two probable outputs, helium and a 2.45-MeV neutron or tritiumoutputs, helium and a 2.45-MeV neutron or tritium and a proton.and a proton. The energy of 2.45MeV neutron can be harnessed inThe energy of 2.45MeV neutron can be harnessed in a reactor to create water vapor &amp;drive an electricitya reactor to create water vapor &amp;drive an electricity generator.generator. </li> <li> EVIDENCE TO SUPPORTEVIDENCE TO SUPPORT TABLETOP NUCLEAR FUSIONTABLETOP NUCLEAR FUSION DEVICEDEVICE We gather two kinds of evidence that theWe gather two kinds of evidence that the deuterium is fusing.deuterium is fusing. The first is by measuring levels of anotherThe first is by measuring levels of another hydrogen isotope tritiumhydrogen isotope tritium The second is neutron emissions detected byThe second is neutron emissions detected by the neutron detector.the neutron detector. </li> <li> SEQUENCE OF EVENTSSEQUENCE OF EVENTS </li> <li> OTHER APPROACHESOTHER APPROACHES Mainly two types:Mainly two types: Laser beam technique.Laser beam technique. Magnetic confinement fusionMagnetic confinement fusion </li> <li> ADVANTAGESADVANTAGES It is self sustaining.It is self sustaining. Easily control.Easily control. Produce more energy than it consumes.Produce more energy than it consumes. Low cost.Low cost. Easily available raw materials.Easily available raw materials. Environmental friendly.Environmental friendly. </li> <li> APPLICATIONSAPPLICATIONS The technology might one day, in theory, lead to a newThe technology might one day, in theory, lead to a new source of energy. It may result in a new class of low costsource of energy. It may result in a new class of low cost energy.energy. Compact detectors for security applications.Compact detectors for security applications. To analyze molecular structure of materials.To analyze molecular structure of materials. Machines that cheaply manufacture new syntheticMachines that cheaply manufacture new synthetic materials &amp; efficiently produce tritium, which is used formaterials &amp; efficiently produce tritium, which is used for medical imaging to watch dials.medical imaging to watch dials. </li> <li> FUTURE DEVELOPMENTSFUTURE DEVELOPMENTS Fully self-sustained.Fully self-sustained. neutronsneutrons </li> <li> ContdContd To create a full-size electricity producingTo create a full-size electricity producing nuclear generator.nuclear generator. </li> <li> CONCLUSIONCONCLUSION For more than half a century,For more than half a century, thermonuclear fusion has held out thethermonuclear fusion has held out the promise of cheap, clean and virtuallypromise of cheap, clean and virtually limitless energy.limitless energy. </li> <li> REFERENCEREFERENCE IEEE spectrum ,MAY 2005.IEEE spectrum ,MAY 2005. www.purdue.eduwww.purdue.edu www.iter.orgwww.iter.org www.washington.eduwww.washington.edu </li> <li> THANKTHANK YOUYOU </li> </ul>