bruce mayer, pe licensed electrical & mechanical engineer bmayer@chabotcollege

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Engineering 10. Engineering History. Bruce Mayer, PE Licensed Electrical & Mechanical Engineer BMayer@ChabotCollege.edu. American Innovation. American Inventors/Engineers Samuel Morse TeleGraph Robert Fulton SteamBoat Eli Whitney Cotton Gin Alexander Graham Bell TelePhone - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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W A T K I N S - J O H N S O N C O M P A N Y Semiconductor Equipment Group

Bruce Mayer, PELicensed Electrical & Mechanical EngineerBMayer@ChabotCollege.eduEngineering 10EngineeringHistory

BMayer@ChabotCollege.edu ENGR-10_Lec-02_Engineering_History.ppt#Bruce Mayer, PE Engineering-10: Intro to EngineeringAmerican InnovationAmerican Inventors/EngineersSamuel Morse TeleGraphRobert Fulton SteamBoatEli Whitney Cotton GinAlexander Graham Bell TelePhoneCharles GoodYear Vulcanized Rubber (Synthetic Rubber for Vehicle Tires)Oroville & Wilbur Wright AirPlaneThomas Edison Electric Light Bulb

BMayer@ChabotCollege.edu ENGR-10_Lec-02_Engineering_History.ppt#Bruce Mayer, PE Engineering-10: Intro to EngineeringFirst TelephoneAmerican InnovationAmerican Inventors/EngineersHenry Ford Production-Line ManufacturingWillis Carrier Air ConditioningWilliam Shockley TransistorJack Kilby Planer-Process for Transistor FabricationTheodore Maiman LaserEdwin Land Instant PhotographyVinton Cerf InterNet (TCP/IP)

BMayer@ChabotCollege.edu ENGR-10_Lec-02_Engineering_History.ppt#Bruce Mayer, PE Engineering-10: Intro to EngineeringFirst Transistor (top) (bot) Jack Kilby receiving his Nobel Prize from the King Carl XVI Gustaf of Sweden at the Stockholm Concert Hall, 10 December 200020th Century Engineering ImpactElectrification Automobile Airplane Water Supply & Distribution Electronics Radio and Television Agricultural Mechanization Computers Telephone Air Conditioning and RefrigerationHighways Spacecraft Internet Med Imaging Household Appliances Health Technologies Petroleum and Petrochemical Technology Laser and Fiber Optics Nuclear Technologies High-performance MaterialsNational Academy of Engineering http://www.greatachievements.org/ 2009

BMayer@ChabotCollege.edu ENGR-10_Lec-02_Engineering_History.ppt#Bruce Mayer, PE Engineering-10: Intro to EngineeringENGR History - BackGroundThe Earliest Technical Drawings, or BluePrints, Date Back to About 4000 B.C. With the Fortress Plans of the Chaldean Engineer Gudea

However, The Engineering Discipline Was Not Formalized Until about the 16th Century; We start ThereBMayer@ChabotCollege.edu ENGR-10_Lec-02_Engineering_History.ppt#Bruce Mayer, PE Engineering-10: Intro to EngineeringEuropean RootsThe French Engineering Tradition Resulted From The Strong National Monarchy of the 16th & 17th Centuries. Tax collection systems made possible an enlarged and permanent military--the first major employment base for engineersFirst projects:Fortresses (strong enough to resist artillery)Road and Bridges (to support movement of armies)BMayer@ChabotCollege.edu ENGR-10_Lec-02_Engineering_History.ppt#Bruce Mayer, PE Engineering-10: Intro to EngineeringFrench Roots cont.In 1676 the French Minister of War created the CORPS OF ENGINEERS in the French army. Personnel were recruited from the lower French nobility and the upper middle classIn 1716 the French Royal Government Created the Corps of Bridges & Roads. A Network Of Roads Was Created To Speed the Deployment Of Troops BMayer@ChabotCollege.edu ENGR-10_Lec-02_Engineering_History.ppt#Bruce Mayer, PE Engineering-10: Intro to EngineeringEarly Engineering SchoolsFirst Schools Founded in France1747 cole des Ponts et Chausseses (School of Bridges and Roads)1749 cole du Corps Royal du Genie (School for Military Engineers)1778 - cole des Mines (School for Mining Engineers)1794 - cole PolyTechnique (School for Theoretical and Mathematical Engineering)By 1800 Engineering was an established profession in FranceBMayer@ChabotCollege.edu ENGR-10_Lec-02_Engineering_History.ppt#Bruce Mayer, PE Engineering-10: Intro to EngineeringFather of the Modern BluePrintGaspard Monge, a French Mathematician and Engineer, developed the modern method of Orthographic Projection in the 1760s.This was a State Secret until France allowed Monge to publish his work in 1799Monges Method Made Possible Modern CE & ME

BMayer@ChabotCollege.edu ENGR-10_Lec-02_Engineering_History.ppt#Bruce Mayer, PE Engineering-10: Intro to EngineeringEngineering in America The Government remained the primary patron of engineering throughout Europe until Britain's commercial and industrial expansion allowed partnerships and corporations to undertake large and complex projects. Early American engineering was a blend of French and British engineering traditions.

BMayer@ChabotCollege.edu ENGR-10_Lec-02_Engineering_History.ppt#Bruce Mayer, PE Engineering-10: Intro to EngineeringEngineering in America cont.The outbreak of the American Revolution created asudden demand forengineers. In 1775 the 2nd Continental Congress established the Corps Of Engineersin the Continental Army.

BMayer@ChabotCollege.edu ENGR-10_Lec-02_Engineering_History.ppt#Bruce Mayer, PE Engineering-10: Intro to EngineeringEngineering in America cont.Until 1783 the Corps of Engineers was lead by, and primarily composed of, French engineers. The Corps was dissolved along with the Continental army after 1783. In 1794 Congress authorized the Corps of Artillerists and Engineers and assigned it to the garrison at West Point. This was the First formalized education program for engineers in America.BMayer@ChabotCollege.edu ENGR-10_Lec-02_Engineering_History.ppt#Bruce Mayer, PE Engineering-10: Intro to EngineeringEngineering in America cont.First major Govt-financed transportation project was the 365-mile-long Erie Canal in 1816.

Many transportationprojects followed,thus increasing the need for professionally trained engineers.BMayer@ChabotCollege.edu ENGR-10_Lec-02_Engineering_History.ppt#Bruce Mayer, PE Engineering-10: Intro to EngineeringEngineering Workforce Education Benjamin Wright, Canvass Wright, and James Geddes were hired by the state of New York to oversee the construction of the Erie Canal (1817 to 1820). They learned engineering by trial-and-error. Geddes and the Wrights were authorized to hire assistants to help them. This set the stage for the Engineer apprenticeship training program.

BMayer@ChabotCollege.edu ENGR-10_Lec-02_Engineering_History.ppt#Bruce Mayer, PE Engineering-10: Intro to EngineeringSTD BluePrints were common by the time of the Eirie CanalEngineering Education cont.America's Mechanical Engineering needs were met by Engineers trained on-the-job Most starting as machine-shop apprentices In 1817 superintendent Sylvanus Thayer introduced a standard four-year engineering curriculum at West Point.

BMayer@ChabotCollege.edu ENGR-10_Lec-02_Engineering_History.ppt#Bruce Mayer, PE Engineering-10: Intro to EngineeringEngineering Education cont.In 1865 the Naval Academy established the Department of Steam Engineering, One of the First Mechanical Engineering Programs In America

BMayer@ChabotCollege.edu ENGR-10_Lec-02_Engineering_History.ppt#Bruce Mayer, PE Engineering-10: Intro to EngineeringCivilian Engineering Education1820 - Norwich University, the first civilian engineering school, was founded by Alden Partridge. By 1834 a 3-year program was in place. 1824 - Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (RPI) was founded to train teachers to instruct farmers and artisans on the scientific principles of their vocations. 1835 Started to Award Civil Engineering degreesThree-year program in place by 1850BMayer@ChabotCollege.edu ENGR-10_Lec-02_Engineering_History.ppt#Bruce Mayer, PE Engineering-10: Intro to EngineeringNorwich univ in Northfield, VT 05663American Engineering EducationThe Army Academy at West Point, NY remained the major source of Engineering Educators until the late 1860's. The Morrill Act of 1862 established the Land Grant institutions to teach Agricultural and the Mechanical arts. Land Grant Universities significantly increased the number of Engineering Educational Programs 70 by 1872 and 85 by 1880 BMayer@ChabotCollege.edu ENGR-10_Lec-02_Engineering_History.ppt#Bruce Mayer, PE Engineering-10: Intro to EngineeringLand Grant Universities

BMayer@ChabotCollege.edu ENGR-10_Lec-02_Engineering_History.ppt#Bruce Mayer, PE Engineering-10: Intro to EngineeringAmerican Engineering EducationMechanical Engineering programs at Land Grant institutions were bolstered when Congress authorized the Navy to detail (assign) surplus officers to teach Steam Engineering and Iron & Steel Ship Design (1879 to 1896).

BMayer@ChabotCollege.edu ENGR-10_Lec-02_Engineering_History.ppt#Bruce Mayer, PE Engineering-10: Intro to EngineeringProfessional Institutions1818 - Institution of Civil Engineers founded in Britain, the FIRST Professional Society for Engineers 1824 - Franklin Institute of Philadelphia was formed to educate crafts persons in the scientific principles of their work 1867 - The American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE) was formed.

BMayer@ChabotCollege.edu ENGR-10_Lec-02_Engineering_History.ppt#Bruce Mayer, PE Engineering-10: Intro to EngineeringProfessional Institutions1871 - The American Institute of Mining Engineers was formed when mining engineers split from the ASCE. 1880 - American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) established. 1884 - American Institute of Electrical Engineers founded.

BMayer@ChabotCollege.edu ENGR-10_Lec-02_Engineering_History.ppt#Bruce Mayer, PE Engineering-10: Intro to EngineeringAmerican Style of Engineering By the end of the 19th Century the style of engineering in America Diverged From The French and British styles. American Engineering stressed efficient use of labor, and economy in designCommercial Focus The European Style emphasized strength, safety, permanency, and Style. Aesthetic Focus

BMayer@ChabotCollege.edu ENGR-10_Lec-02_Engineering_History.ppt#Bruce Mayer, PE Engineering-10: Intro to EngineeringDawn of the Modern EraBy 1900 there were 40,000 practitioners in the engineering profession in America. Four professional societies had emerged Nearly 100 educational programs in Full Operation