Brief history of photography

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<ul><li>1.Brief History ofPhotographyMajor Leaps in PhotographyAdapted from LizMasoner, Guide</li></ul> <p>2. Beginnings Photography started with a camera and the basic idea has been around since about the 5th Century B.C. For centuries these were just ideas until an Iraqi scientist developed something called the camera obscura sometime in the 11th Century. 3. Permanent Images Photographyas we know it today began in the late 1830s in France when Joseph Nicphore Nipce used a portable camera obscura to expose a pewter plate coated with bitumen to light. This is the first recorded image that did not fade quickly. 4. Daguerreotype Collaboration between Nipce and Louis Daguerre resulted in the creation of the Daguerreotype. Daguerreotypes were the forerunners to our modern film. TheDaguerreotype was very popular until it was replaced in the late 1850s by emulsion plates 5. Emulsion Plates Emulsionplates, or wet plates, were less expensive than Daguerreotypes and took only two or three seconds of exposure time. Thesewet plates used an emulsion process called the Collodion process, rather than a simple coating on the image plate 6. Dry Plates Inthe 1870s, photography took anotherhuge leap forward. Richard Maddoximproved on a previous invention to makedry gelatine plates that were nearly equalwith wet plates for speed and quality 7. Dry Plates These dry plates could be stored rather thanmade as needed. This allowed photographersmuch more freedom in taking photographs. Cameras were also able to be smaller so thatthey could be hand-held. As exposure times decreased, the first camerawith a mechanical shutter was developed. 8. Cameras for Everyone Photographywas only for professionals orthe very rich until George Eastman starteda company called Kodak in the 1880s. Eastman created a flexible roll film thatdid not require the constant changing ofsolid plates. This allowed him to develop aself-contained box camera that held 100exposures of film. 9. Cameras for Everyone Thiswas the first camera inexpensiveenough for the average person to afford.The film was still large in comparison totodays 35mm film. It took until the late1940s for 35mm film to become cheapenough for most people to afford. 10. Around 1930, Henri-CartierBresson and otherphotographers began to usesmall 35mm cameras to captureimages of life as it occurredrather than staged portrait shots. 11. This style of capturing decisivemoments shaped the face ofphotography forever. 12. Instant Images At the same time 35mm cameras werebecoming popular, Polaroid introducedthe Model 95. Model 95 used a secret chemical processto develop film inside the camera in lessthan a minute. This new camera was fairlyexpensive but the novelty of instantimages caught the publics attention. 13. Instant Images Bythe mid 1960s, Polaroid had many models on the market and the price had dropped so that even more people could afford it. 14. Image Control While the French introduced the permanentimage, the Japanese brought easy control oftheir images to the photographer. In the 1950s Asahi, which later becamePentax, introduced the Asahiflex and Nikonintroduced its Nikon F camera. These were both SLR-type cameras and theNikon F allowed for interchangeable lensesand other accessories. 15. For the next 30 years SLR-typecameras remained the cameraof choice and manyimprovements were introducedto both the cameras and thefilm itself. 16. Smart Cameras Inthe late 1970s and early 1980s compactcameras that were capable of makingimage control decisions on their ownwere introduced. These "point and shoot" camerascalculated shutter speed, aperture, andfocus; leaving photographers free toconcentrate on composition. 17. Smart Cameras Whilethese cameras became immensely popular with casual photographers, professionals and serious amateurs continued to prefer to make their own adjustments to image control. 18. The Digital Age In the 1980s and 1990s, numerousmanufacturers worked on cameras thatstored images electronically. The first of these were point and shootcameras that used digital media insteadof film. By 1991, Kodak had produced the firstdigital camera advanced enough to beused successfully by professionals. 19. The Digital Age Other manufacturers quickly followed andtoday Canon, Nikon, Pentax, and othermanufacturers all offer advanced digitalSLR cameras. Even the most basic point and shootcamera now takes higher quality imagesthan Nipces pewter plate. 20. The Digital Age Today people can take photographs ofrelatively good quality with mobile phonesand I-pads and other such devices. Digital cameras have also become moresophisticated and more professional. 21. Jimi Kayodeadebola adegunwa school ofcommunication,Lagos State University.Lagos, Nigeria. </p>