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Broadband Over Power LinesAdditional notes available depending on display modeNo responsibility is claimed for technological changes, or link reliability, subsequent to material presentation

1Broadband over Powerlines (a.k.a. Access Broadband) is a means of providing high-speed internet access over the electric utility high voltage primaries that serve the individual power transformers in every neighborhood in North America.

What is Broadband Over Power Lines

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Broadband over power lines(BPL) is a method ofpower line communicationthat allows relatively high-speed digital data transmission over the publicelectric power distributionwiring.

Withbroadband over power lines, orBPL, you can plug your computer into any electrical outlet in your home and instantly have access to high-speed Internet. By combining the technological principles ofradio,wireless networking, andmodems, developers have created a way to send data over power lines and into homes at speeds between 500 kilobits and 3 megabits per second (equivalent to DSL and cable).

How Broadband Over Power Lines Works

How Broadband Over Powerlines WorksAn emerging technology may be the newest heavy hitter in the competitive world of broadband Internet service. It offers high-speed access to your home through the most unlikely path: a common electrical outlet. (Broadband over Power Line) technology makes possible high-speed Internet access over ordinary residential electrical lines. BPL offers an alternative toDSLorcable modembroadband Internet services.

Withbroadband over power lines, orBPL, you can plug your computer into any electrical outlet in your home and instantly have access to high-speed Internet. By combining the technological principles ofradio,wireless networking, andmodems, developers have created a way to send data over power lines and into homes at speeds between 500 kilobits and 3 megabits per second (equivalent to DSL and cable).

Broadband Over Power Lines

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Broadband Over Power Lines

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Broadband Over Power LinesIn summary, Broadband can be provided by:

Wired connections: Telephone (POS), Cable (POS) Wireless: Satellite (WAN), WiFi (LAN) Optical Fiber (POS)

The Newest in Internet Service is Broadband over Power Lines (or Access Broadband)with some unique features . . .

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NTIA Report 04-413, Potential Interference From Broadband Over Power Line (BPL) Systems To Federal Government Radiocommunications AT 1.7 - 80 MHz, Phase 1 Study - U.S. DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE, National Telecommunications and Information Administration Broadband Over Power LinesDelta

15This is the general conceptual arrangement. An Injector serves to provide the main data signal, a Repeater serves to boost the signal at regular intervals due to line noise (similar to Telephone T1 provisions), and an extractor serves to convey the data across the power transformer to the user(s) as each transformer will usually feed power to several customers, even though only one may desire the BPL signal.

NTIA Report 04-413, Potential Interference From Broadband Over Power Line (BPL) Systems To Federal Government Radiocommunications AT 1.7 - 80 MHz, Phase 1 Study - U.S. DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE, National Telecommunications and Information Administration

Broadband Over Power LinesDelta

16An Injector or Extractor may have a very similar design. In this case an Extractor is used to provide a jump across the power transformer. Although the High Frequency (HF) energy would jump across the transformer easily anyway, the impedance transformation might make the signal on the low side uselessly small. The Extractor makes up for these losses by providing a signal amplitude sufficient for indoor modems. Note however, that coming indoors there will be a combinations of the F2 shown, as well as the F1.

NTIA Report 04-413, Potential Interference From Broadband Over Power Line (BPL) Systems To Federal Government Radiocommunications AT 1.7 - 80 MHz, Phase 1 Study - U.S. DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE, National Telecommunications and Information Administration

Broadband Over Power LinesDelta

17Where lines have switches for normal power sectionalizing, maintenance, and storm restoration efforts, the physical link is no longer available, so Radio Frequency is employed to skip over the gap. As shown, the antennas will have an omni-directional output that spans beyond the confines of the power line. Were one to be within reach of (thus exposed to) the WiFi hop, it would most likely Not be available for individual use, as there would be no way of accounting for revenue collection.

NTIA Report 04-413, Potential Interference From Broadband Over Power Line (BPL) Systems To Federal Government Radiocommunications AT 1.7 - 80 MHz, Phase 1 Study - U.S. DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE, National Telecommunications and Information Administration

Broadband Over Power LinesWye

18This is Wye application where the Primary Neutral is used as the Ground reference. In a Delta system a local ground was all that was needed.

BPL and HF A Primer ARRL 2004Broadband Over Power Lines

19This is a High Voltage (HV) to Data isolator. Data flow back and forth though it to the HV line, while the HV is isolated from the data electronics. In essence it is nothing more than a frequency-selective filter, allowing data to flow in both directions, but stopping the 60 Hz.

BPL and HF A Primer ARRL 2004

Broadband Over Power Lines

20This is a combination Isolator and Electronics package. The Electronics package can be an Injector or Repeater. In this illustration a Wye line is shown, with the Primary Neutral below the package, and with a twisted pair (Triplex) power line at 120V providing power to the package (shown at a slight angle to the Primary Neutral).

Broadband Over Power LinesAnalog Modulation

QAM @ www.williamson-labs.com

21Shown here is a means to provide complex modulation to a carrier signal for maximum data cartage. This is typical of analog 56K (and faster) modems. A carrier signal is split 90 degrees, and separate modulation applied to each. They are then combined, and the resulting waveform sent on the phone wires is shown at right.

Broadband Over Power LinesProjected BPL Carrier frequencies are 1.7 MHz to 80 MHz.

22In this sketch the differences between Analog and Digital application are highlighted. Using Digital, one can have both occurring at the same time, separated by a Frequency Selective (FS) Filter. For BPL the same FS Filter allows both to occur, but in this case the FS Filter has to also be able to isolate 120 VAC from the electronics. The standard telephone wiring employs 48 VDC and needs two wires, that drops to about 7 V when in use. Here only a single line is shown, where each line implies two physical wires.

Broadband Over Power LinesIntro to T1 @ www.rflelect.comA COMMUNICATIONS NETWORK WITHOUT T1

PHONESYSTEMRFL 9745RFL 9785HCBNetwork

PHONESYSTEMRFL 9745RFL 9785HCB LAN

ANALOG TIE LINESAnalog/Digital LINEPOWER LINEPILOT WIRESDIGITAL LINE

DTTDTTDCBDCB

PBXPBXPBX

OPXOPXOPX

DATA

DATA

RFL 9720RFL 9720Introduction to Digital Methods

23A typical communication need with many separate channels.

Broadband Over Power LinesIntro to T1 @ www.rflelect.comAnalog to Digital ConversionPCMTDM

24A communication channel can be digitized by sampling, and the resulting empty space can be used to cram additional channels onto the same physical carrier.

Broadband Over Power LinesFully Digital above separate channels to avoid collisionDigital Modulation below separate frequencies to avoid collision

25Telephone T1 carrier needs regular regeneration (through a repeater) due to line noise, and there is one every 5000 feet or so. BPL has the same needs, but because the physical medium has only one wire, where T1 employs four, the send and receive paths are distinguished by using separate frequencies.

Broadband Over Power LinesT1 Repeater

26A typical T1 repeater is located at about three feet above ground, for easy maintenance.

Broadband Over Power LinesBPL Injector / Repeater

27A typical BPL repeater is located 25 feet up in the air, more or less, to prevent access.

Broadband Over Power LinesProjected BPL Carrier frequencies are 1.7 MHz to 80 MHz. < 30 MHz - Conducted energy. Field detection by Magnetic field.

> 30 MHz - Conducted And Radiated energy. Field detection by Electric field.

28A typical block arrangement for BPL usage.

Broadband Over Power Lines

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Broadband Over Power LinesWavelength = C / F, and C = 186,000 mi/sec

At 1 MHz ~ 1000, at 10 MHz ~ 100, and at 100 MHz ~ 10

Less than about 3 is considered the Near Field where unusual echo effects occur, and E & M fields need to be measured separately, for proper assessment.

3 at 10 MHz is ~ 300

31Simple relationships for wavelength and frequency. The Near Field is a region in space where the emitted energies exhibit peculiar echo effects before departing into distant free-space. The Near Field is a region where there may be peaks and nulls where the peaks may exhibit considerably more power than beyond the Near Field dimensions. Cellular phones exhibit the same phenomenon, but the dimensions for the Near Field vary, where for 900 MHz it is six feet in diameter, for 1.8 GHz (1800 MHz) it is about three feet in diameter, and for 2.5 GHz it is about two feet in diameter. Unfortunately for most cell phone users, one side of their head is always at the center of the Near Field. What a global