Bones and the Skeletal System

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Bones and the Skeletal System. Advanced Biology 2013. Bones Cartilage Ligaments. Bones. Osseous Tissue (Connective tissue). Types of Bones. Long Bones Longer than they are wide Produce body movements Short Bones Equal in length and width Limited motion (Gliding) Flat Bones - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Bones and the Skeletal System

Bones and the Skeletal SystemAdvanced Biology 2013BonesCartilageLigaments

BonesOsseous Tissue (Connective tissue)

Types of BonesLong BonesLonger than they are wideProduce body movementsShort BonesEqual in length and widthLimited motion (Gliding)Flat BonesEnclose and protect soft organsProvide area for muscle attachmentIrregular BonesVertebrae, Sphenoid, EthmoidLong BonesCompact Bone (dense) surrounds the medullary cavity which contains the bone marrowSpongy Bone (cancellous)- loosely organized form of bone tissueDiaphysis-Shaft, provides leverageEpiphysis-Expanded head, strengthens the jointsArticular Cartilage-Where one bone meets another, Hyaline cartilage

Fig. 30-4CartilageSpongy bone(contains redbone marrow)CartilageSpongyboneCompactboneCentralcavityYellowbone marrowBloodvesselsFibrousconnectivetissueFlat Bones2 layers of compact bone which encloses a middle layer of spongy bone (dipole)

Bone CellsOsteogenic Cells- Bone producing cellsOsteoblasts-Bone forming cellsOsteocytes-Former osteoblasts-help pass nutrients and chemical signals to each otherOsteoclasts-Bone dissolving cells, on bone surface

Bone MarrowRed Marrow- Childhood, produces blood cellsIn adults, Red marrow is only present in vertebrae, ribs, sternum, and proximal heads of humerus and femurYellow-Young-middle aged adults, fatty and no longer producing blood cellsGelatinous-Old ageSkeleton

Fig. 30-3aSkullClavicleScapulaShouldergirdleSternumRibsHumerusVertebraRadiusUlnaPelvic girdleCarpalsPhalangesMetacarpalsFemurPatellaTibiaFibulaTarsalsMetatarsalsPhalanges

Fig. 30-3bIntervertebraldiscsHipbone7 cervicalvertebrae12 thoracicvertebrae5 lumbarvertebraeSacrumCoccyxFractures

Healing of Fractures1. Hematoma Formation-Clot2. Formation of granulation tissue3. Callus formation (4-6 weeks)4. Remodeling (3 months)

JointsFibrous Joints- SuturesCartilaginous Joints- VertebraeBony Joints- Mandible/frontal boneSynovial JointsBall and socket, Hinge, Saddle, Pivot, Gliding, and Condyloid

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