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  • The author(s) shown below used Federal funds provided by the U.S. Department of Justice and prepared the following final report: Document Title: Body Mass Estimation from the Human Skeleton Author: Megan K. Moore Document No.: 227932

    Date Received: August 2009 Award Number: 2007-DN-BX-0013 This report has not been published by the U.S. Department of Justice. To provide better customer service, NCJRS has made this Federally-funded grant final report available electronically in addition to traditional paper copies.

    Opinions or points of view expressed are those

    of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the official position or policies of the U.S.

    Department of Justice.

  • Body Mass Estimation from the Human Skeleton

    A Dissertation Presented for

    the Doctor of Philosophy

    Degree

    The University of Tennessee, Knoxville

    Megan K. Moore

    May 2008

    This document is a research report submitted to the U.S. Department of Justice. This report has not been published by the Department. Opinions or points of view expressed are those of the author(s)

    and do not necessarily reflect the official position or policies of the U.S. Department of Justice.

  • Dedication

    To my dear Papa, for all you have been and all you have done for me. I miss you.

    ii

    This document is a research report submitted to the U.S. Department of Justice. This report has not been published by the Department. Opinions or points of view expressed are those of the author(s)

    and do not necessarily reflect the official position or policies of the U.S. Department of Justice.

  • Copyright 2008 by Megan K. Moore

    All rights reserved.

    iii

    This document is a research report submitted to the U.S. Department of Justice. This report has not been published by the Department. Opinions or points of view expressed are those of the author(s)

    and do not necessarily reflect the official position or policies of the U.S. Department of Justice.

  • Dissertation Abstract

    The established methods for estimating average body mass from the skeleton are

    of two types: biomechanical and morphometric. Neither technique currently addresses

    the extremes of body mass (e.g. emaciation or obesity). The goal of this research is to

    explore several different biomechanical methods, using data collected from high

    resolution computed tomographic scans and macroscopic analysis of 150 known modern

    individuals from the William M. Bass Donated Skeleton Collection at the University of

    Tennessee, Knoxville. This research will review the biomechanics of human gait and the

    biomechanical accommodations that occur with increased obesity and load bearing. The

    analysis will include cross-sectional geometry of the human femur at five locations along

    the diaphysis, bone mineral density scans of the proximal femur and a macroscopic

    evaluation of degenerative changes of the articulations of the spine, hip, knee and foot.

    The best single indicator of body mass for both males and females is the cross-sectional

    area of the proximal femur and BMD. By using pathologies combined, an accuracy rate

    of 87% for predicting obesity was achieved using a classification tree with sexes pooled.

    Furthermore, severe obesity has such a profound effect on the human skeleton as to leave

    a suite of traits affecting the load bearing elements of the lower limb and vertebral

    column.

    iv

    This document is a research report submitted to the U.S. Department of Justice. This report has not been published by the Department. Opinions or points of view expressed are those of the author(s)

    and do not necessarily reflect the official position or policies of the U.S. Department of Justice.

  • Acknowledgements

    This research could not have been completed without the financial support and

    expertise of the Biomedical Engineers of the University of Tennessee. I am especially

    indebted to Dr. Mohamed Mahfouz for taking me under his wing and exposing me to new

    and innovative methods in order to achieve my anthropological goals. The extensive

    knowledge and constructive criticism from my advisor Dr. Lyle Konigsberg greatly

    improved the quality of my scholarship. The open door policy and many hours of

    brainstorming with Dr. Richard Jantz are responsible for the topic of this dissertation. I

    am indebted to Dr. Kent Hutson of the UT Medical Center for facilitating the CT scans

    and advising me on technical procedures. Dr. Dixie Thompson of the Department of

    Exercise, Sport and Leisure Studies at UT gave up a lot of free time to collaborate on

    bone density scans. I would like to thank Dr. Lee Meadows Jantz for her help and

    support and for giving me permission to use the William M. Bass Donated Collection.

    The Biomedical Engineering students provided their technical expertise, without which,

    this work could not have been completed. Thank you Emam ElHak Ali Abd ElFatah,

    Brandon Merkl, Mike Kuhn and Katherine Kesler. A special thanks to all of the

    Anthropology and Engineering volunteers who gave up their Saturdays or Sundays to

    help up with the scanning. The scanning was extremely physically and mentally

    demanding, and they worked for hours on end, without a single complaint. I thank Jenn

    Lilly, Donna McCarthy, Amanda Allbright, Emily Loucks, Rebecca Wilson, Elizabeth

    DiGangi, Anne Kroman, Lorena Villao, Katie King, Brian Pope, Genevieve Ritchie, Kate

    Driscoll, Courtney Eleazer, Kanchana Jagannathan and of course my ever obliging CT

    Tech, Todd Malone. Thanks to my wonderful friends for the patience and moral support,

    v

    This document is a research report submitted to the U.S. Department of Justice. This report has not been published by the Department. Opinions or points of view expressed are those of the author(s)

    and do not necessarily reflect the official position or policies of the U.S. Department of Justice.

  • especially during the final most stressful stages. Thank you: Dr. Anne Kroman, Dr. Liz

    DiGangi, Dr. Katy Weisensee, Dr. Graciela Cabana, Emily Hammerl, Giovanna Vidoli,

    Heather Worne, and Barbara Graham. This would not have been completed without my

    family. I love you all dearly: Monique, Mom, Dad, Michael, Dora, Nonnie, Grandma,

    Grandpa and my wonderfully supportive partner John Nipper. This research was

    partially supported by a grant from Zimmer Orthopaedics. The writing of this

    dissertation was supported by Award No. 2007- DN-BX-0013 awarded by the National

    Institute of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, U.S. Department of Justice. The

    opinions, findings, and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this publication are

    those of the author and do not necessarily reflect those of the Department of Justice.

    vi

    This document is a research report submitted to the U.S. Department of Justice. This report has not been published by the Department. Opinions or points of view expressed are those of the author(s)

    and do not necessarily reflect the official position or policies of the U.S. Department of Justice.

  • Table of Contents

    Chapter 1. INTRODUCTION............................................................................................. 1

    Introduction..................................................................................................................... 1

    Literature Review............................................................................................................ 2

    Research Design and Methods........................................................................................ 9

    Implications for policy and practice ............................................................................. 11

    Chapter 2. BODY MASS ESTIMATION ........................................................................ 13

    Morphometric Methods ................................................................................................ 14

    Biomechanical Methods................................................................................................ 14

    Engineering Beam Theory ............................................................................................ 19

    Biomechanics of Obesity .............................................................................................. 20

    Metabolic Processes of Bone Synthesis and Resorption .............................................. 27

    Pathologies.................................................................................................................... 29

    Osteoarthritis................................................................................................................. 29

    Risk Factors for Osteoarthritis ...................................................................................... 31

    Heel Spurs..................................................................................................................... 33

    DISH ............................................................................................................................. 35

    Osteoporosis.................................................................................................................. 37

    Risk Factors for Osteoporosis....................................................................................... 39

    Chapter 3. MATERIALS...............................................

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