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  • Slide 1
  • Blue Nile Sudd Swamp White Nile Nile Nile River Basin
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  • Basin Population Ten Riparian States Egypt Sudan Ethiopia Uganda Rwanda Tanzania Kenya D.R. Congo Eritrea Burundi
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  • Issues in the Nile Basin Ethiopia Generates 85% water reaching Egypts Aswah Dam Second most populated riparian state The Single most important strategic interest is striving to attain food security in a chronically famine-prone regionand all scenarios [involve] more intense use of the western Nile watershed Waterbury Sudan 60% of Land Mass in Basin Sudd Swamp Evap loss of 50% of all Water in White Nile Civil war Historically always sided with Egypt in Nile Issues Egypt 96% of population live in Nile Delta/Basin Entirely dependent on Nile waters Only 4% from underground reserves Considered the most powerful riparian state in basin
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  • Unique Issues to Nile Basin Historic precedence Colonial and Egyptian control Egypt and Northern Sudan do not contribute to water generation in the Nile Majority of the riparian states became independent nations since the 1960s Political and economic basis weak
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  • International Agreements 1899 Anglo-Egyptian No water withdrawn upstream of Egypt without Egyptian and British consent 1929 Egyptian and British Agreement British represented Kenya, Tanzania and Sudan 93% water of Nile allocated to Egypt, 7% to Sudan All upstream projects approved by Egypt 1959 Egypt and Sudan 75% to Egypt, 25% to Sudan Rejected by all of the other riparian states when they became independent
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  • Water Allocation in the Basin
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  • Riparian States Interests Status Quo Egypt Uganda New Allocations Ethiopia Sudan Eritrea Indifferent Kenya, Tanzania, Congo, Rwanda, Burundi
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  • How do you allocate the water in the Nile?
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  • Beaumonts Proposal 50/50 Historical/Generation Proposed Allocation
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  • Equitable and Reasonable Beaumont (1997) 50% generation/50% historical usage (MCM) Allocation- Generation Allocation- HistoricalTotalCurrentChange Egypt 023370 67640-44270 Ethiopia 358500 0 Sudan 215500 21360190 89000
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  • Brichier-Colomba (1996) 33% weight to each factor Population of Riparians country in Basin Riparian's Area of Basin Average amount of water used
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  • Brichier-Colomba (1996) 33% weight to each factor Population of Riparians country in Basin Riparian's Area of Basin Average amount of water used Norm alized Proposed TotalCurrentChange Egypt94%13%76%54.0%4809167640-19549 Ethiopia50%14%0%19.2%170820 Sudan10%60%24%26.8%23827213602467
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  • What factors should be considered for allocations in the Nile Basin?
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  • Waterburys Criteria Equal Weighting for each factor Ratio of water flowing across a riparian's border to the total discharge of the watercourse Proportion of the ripairan's total population living in the basin Total amount of irrigable land that could be farmed with watercourse water without extra-basin transfers Amount of alternative, utilizable water available in aquifers, regionally appropriate rainfall and stored water (deductions) Basin needs per capita to protect life and basic health Allocation necessary to protect existing wetlands and ecosystems
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  • Whats Happening in the Basin?
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  • Recent History of Cooperation 1992 Council of Ministers of Water Affairs (Nile-COM) All riparian states represented 1995 Nile River Basin Action Plan Cooperative framework for management of the Nile Endorsed by all riparians 1997 World Bank agrees to play a lead role in coordinating external finances 1997 Egypt announces (unilaterally) New Nile Valley Development 1998 NBI Shared Vision Plan developed 1999 Nile Basin Initiative formally established
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  • Nile Basin Initiative Goal: Achieve sustainable socioeconomic development through the equitable utilization of, and benefit from the common resources Objectives: Develop water resources in a sustainable and equitable way to ensure prosperity, security and peace for all its people Ensure efficient water management and optimal use Ensure cooperation and joint action between states Target poverty eradication and promote economic integration Ensure the program results in a move from planning to action
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  • Shared Vision Project Portfolio Applied Training Nile Transboundary Environmental Action Nile Basin Regional Power Trade Water for Agriculture Water Resources Planning and Management Confidence-Building and Stakeholder Involvement Socio-economic Development and Benefit Sharing
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  • Recent Developments, cont. 2001 Sub-Basin agreements between Egypt, Sudan and Ethiopia Agreement to build dams and expand irrigation within Ethiopia with the plan to sell power to Sudan and Egypt Sept. 28, 2005 Largest ever dam to be built in Ethiopia at Kara Dobe on the Awash River with Sudan and Egypt providing financial support
  • Slide 20
  • Questions How did colonialism influence the development of water resources in the Nile basin? What factors impinge on the reaching agreement among the Nile River Riparian nations? Beaumont (2002) proposes a water allocation scheme to fit the equitable and reasonable call in the 1997 UN Convention on a 50% generation/50% historical split. Is this is applicable to the Nile River Basin? The Nile Basin Initiative did not start with specific water projects, but rather education, development of skilled personnel and inclusiveness of all stakeholders. Will this work?