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The Blue Alternative and Permeable Hardscapes By: Stacey Findlater & Cesare Scarpone

By 2025 there will be 3 Billion people living in waterless regions of the world - UN

climatic extremes flooding long droughts forest fires drop in groundwater reserves decrease in soil fertility and biodiversityThe national water award in 2008 indiaBreakdown of the water cycle causes a rise in climatic extremes, flooding, longer droughts, forest fires, drop in groundwater reserves, decrease in soil fertility and biodiversity.

3Where did the water go?

Sea levels are currently rising which impacts human populations living on islands or in costal regions Satellite measured average rise of 3.3mm per year from 1993 to 2009

Douglas (1997)4The Blue Alternative Solution can be used for the following Issues:

Creating and regenerating groundwater supply resources

Flood and drought prevention

Restoration of the natural production potential and biodiversity of an area

To mitigate risk of natural disasters and rising ocean levels

Improve water quality

The blue alternative solution can be used in countries with repeated incidence of atural disasters, lack of water resourses, problems growing food, in dry semi arid regions, or completely dry countries. Strengthening of the atmospheric water vapour layer for protection against intense solar radiation

5Land Covered With Vegetation

1- absorbs the energy of raindrops

2- slows down water

3- supports macro-organisms

1- absorbs the energy of raindrops and prevents packing of the soil that inhibits infiltration 2- slows down the water giving it more time to absorb into the ground water3- supports organisms that aerate the soil, which allows for easier infiltration

In areas with available water resources- By creating a network of small dams and water catchments to slow the flow of water.In dry areas with seasonal rains- By creating small mud dams to slow monsoonal rains, and storing excess water in percolation tanks.

6The Blue Alternative Water Management Policy - In areas with available water resourcesRevitalization of the existing landscape

Construction of many small water catchments

The creation of wetlands and ponds to slow runoff

Supportive agricultural and forest management practices

Sri lankan king Parakramabahu the Great"Not even a single raindrop should be allowed to flow into the sea without it first having been used for the benefit of the people..." is the best summing up of the new water paradigm, astatement which, in the coming decades, should become aslogan for mankind calling for the preservation of civilization.revitalization of the ability of the existing landscape to store and absorb water construction of many small catchments the creation of wetland and ponds to slow runoffto increase the volume of water in natural ecosystems

supportive agricultural and forest management practicesincreases the volume of water in natural 7

The Blue Alternative Solution-In dry areas with seasonal rains Small mud dams slow monsoonal rains

Excess water is stored in basins or percolation tanks

To replenish local ground water aquifers and restore productivity

At the lowest possible cost

No trees For DamsThe Blue Alternative in a Dry Area Requires:Availability of a surplus monsoon rain water

A suitable hydrogeological environment and locations for building water catchments

Jan - Sept

Water Retention in Dry ClimatesCheck dams Contour Bunds

Recharge trenches

Percolation tanks

Planting trees

Recharge trenches- a trench excavated in the ground and refilled with porous media to harvest surface runoffPercolation tanks -the water stored in the tank with weep holes to allow slow percolation for shallow aquifers Graded bunds-To harvest floodwater wide valleys are reshaped and formed into a series of broad level terraces and floodwater is allowed to run through themCheck dams- small rocks or concrete check dams are constructed across depressions to control flow and allow infiltrationSand damsFlood control reserviors

11

Artificial Recharge Techniques Enhance the sustainable yield in areas Conservation and storage of excess water for the future seasonsImprove the quality of existing groundwater Refill aquifers

The Blue Alternative Solution can be used for the following Issues:

Creating and regenerating groundwater resources Improve water qualityFlood and drought preventionProduction Potential and Biodiversity Natural disasters, Rising ocean levels and Iceberg melting.Atmospheric water vapour layer

The blue alternative solution can be used in countries with repeated incidence of atural disasters, lack of water resourses, problems growing food, in dry semi arid regions, or completely dry countries. 15Hiware Bizare- The Miracle Water Village

the conservation of rainwater on land and the selling of only the natural surplus of water in a region is essential for ensuring the environmental security , global stability and the sustenance of economic growth. Fulfilling these interests should be of interest to each individual and each community