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  • BloodWhite blood cells

    PlateletsRed blood cellsArtery

  • Function of Blood: Deliver O2 Remove metabolic wastes Maintain temperature, pH, and fluid volume Protection from blood loss- platelets Prevent infection- antibodies and WBC Transport hormones

  • plasmaformed elementsThe Blood55%45%

  • Blood Plasma Components- 55%90% Water8% Solutes:ProteinsAlbumin (60 %)Alpha and Beta GlobulinsGamma GlobulinsfibrinogensGasElectrolytes

  • Blood Plasma ComponentsOrganic NutrientsCarbohydratesAmino AcidsLipidsVitaminsHormonesMetabolic wasteCO2Urea

  • Formed Elements of the Blood- 45%Erythrocytes (red blood cells)Leukocytes (white blood cells)Platelets

  • Erythrocytes

  • Erythrocyte7.5m in dia Anucleate- so can't reproduce; however, repro in red bone marrow Hematopoiesis- production of RBCFunction- transport respiratory gasesHemoglobin- quaternary structure, 2 chains and 2 chainsLack mitochondria. Why? 1 RBC contains 250 million hemoglobin moleculesMen- 5 million cells/mm3Women- 4.5 million cells/mm3 Life span 100-120 days and then destroyed in spleen (RBC graveyard)

  • HemoglobinPortion of hemoglobin molecule

  • Anemia- when blood has low O2 carrying capacity; insufficient RBC or iron deficiency.Factors that can cause anemia- exercise, B12 deficiencyPolycythemia- excess of erythrocytes, viscosity of blood;8-11 million cells/mm3Usually caused by cancer; however, naturally occurs at high elevationsBlood doping- in athletesremove blood 2 days before event and then replace it- banned by Olympics.RBC Diseases

  • Sickle-cell anemia- HbS results from a change in just one of the 287 amino acids in the chain in the globin molecule.Found in 1 out of 400 African Americans.Abnormal hemoglobin crystalizes when O2 content of blood is low, causing RBCs to become sickle-shaped.Homozygous for sickle-cell is deadly, but in malaria infested countries, the heterozygous condition is beneficial.RBC Diseases

  • Genetics of Sickle Cell AnemiaGenetics of Sickle Cell Anemia

  • Types of LeukocytesGranulocytesNeutrophils- 40-70%Eosinophils- 1-4%Basophils-
  • BasophilEosinophilNeutrophilLymphocyteMonocyteplatelet

  • ID WBCs

  • Blood Cell Production

  • Leukocyte Squeezing Through Capillary Wall

  • Lukemia- too high WBC

    Leukocytosis- suppresses normal bone marrow function; abnormally high WBC

    Leukopenia- too few WBC; commonly induced by drugs, and anticancer agents

    Mononucleosis- highly contagious viral disease caused by Epstein-Barr virus; excessive # of agranulocytes; fatigue, sore throat, recover in a few weeksWBC Diseases

  • Hemostasis- stoppage of bleedingTissue DamagePlatelets: 250,000-500,000 cells/mm3

  • Hemostasis:4. CoagulationVessel injury2. Vascular spasm3. Platelet plug formation

  • Hemostasis(+ feedback)Traps RBC & plateletsPlatelets release thromboplastin

  • Blood ClotFibrin threadPlateletRBC

  • Type AType BType ABType O

  • Blood type is based on the presence of 2 major antigens in RBC membranes-- A and BBlood typeAntigenAntibodyA A anti-BB B anti-A A & B AB no anti bodyNeither A or B Oanti-A and anti-B Antigen- protein on the surface of a RBC membrane

    Antibody- proteins made by lymphocytes in plasma which are made in response to the presence of antigens.They attack foreign antigens, which result in clumping (agglutination)Blood Typing




  • Type AB

  • Rh Factor and PregnancyRH- indicates no protein

    RH+ indicates proteinRH+ indicates protein

  • Rh Factor and PregnancyRh+ mother w/Rh- baby no problemRh- mother w/Rh+ baby problemRh- mother w/Rh- father no problemRh- mother w/Rh- baby-- no problemRhoGAM used @ 28 weeks

  • INQUIRYWhat is an erythrocyte, leukocyte, and thrombocyte?What 2 things do red cells lack compared to white cells?What dietary component is needed for the production of red blood cells?The largest cells in the blood that leave the bloodstream to become macrophages are ____.In an acute infection, the white cell count would show as ______.Erythroblastosis fetalis , also known as hemolytic newborn disease, occurs in ____ mothers carrying ____ fetuses.What antigens and antibodies found on AB red cells?In a transfusion, what type blood can you give a type O person?



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