blood typing and blood genetics. red blood cells (erythrocytes) –most abundant cells in blood;...
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- Blood Typing and Blood Genetics
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- Red Blood Cells (Erythrocytes) Most abundant cells in blood; produced in bone marrow and contain protein called hemoglobin that carries oxygen to our cells. White Blood Cells (Leukocytes) Part of immune system, destroy infectious agents called pathogens. Plasma Yellowish liquid portion of blood that contains electrolytes, nutrients and vitamins, hormones, clotting factors, and proteins such as antibodies to fight infection. Platelets (Thrombocytes) Clotting factors carried in the plasma; clot together in a process called coagulation to seal a wound and prevent a loss of blood. What makes up blood?
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- The average adult has about FIVE liters of blood inside of their body Blood carries oxygen and nutrients to all parts of the body, and carries carbon dioxide and other waste products back to the lungs, kidneys and liver for disposal. It also fights against infection and helps heal wounds, so we can stay healthy. Blood Facts
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- Blood Genetics Everyone has two ABO genes.ABO gene There are three versions (called alleles) of this blood type gene: A, B, and O. A persons blood type is determined by which allele he/she inherits from their parents (one from the mother, one from the father).
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- Pheno vs. Geno The genetic makeup of an organism is called the genotype. The phenotype is the visible properties of an organism. In this case, the A, B, and O allele combination a person has is their genotype Their blood type is their phenotype.
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- Dominant vs. Recessive Genes The A allele is dominant and so is the B allele. Together though, the A and B alleles are co-dominant. The O allele is recessive.
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- Determining the Genotype The blood type gene has three different alleles: I A I A is Type A I A I B is Type AB I B I B results in Type B ii is Type O
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- Determining the Genotype Scenario: Mom has the alleles I A I A for blood type and Dad has the alleles I B I B blood type. What will be the blood type for their child?
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- Punnett Sqaures IAIA IAIA IBIB IBIB
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- Practice Suppose that a mother has blood Type A and genotype I A i and the father has blood Type B and genotype I B i. Draw a Punnett square to show the possible genotypes of their children. What are the phenotypes of the kids?
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- Practice IBIB i IAIA i
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- Blood Types The alleles we discussed code for blood type. What they REALLY code for is a specific enzyme. That enzyme creates specific antigens on your red blood cells.
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- Antigens An antigen is a protein (encoded from the right enzyme) that sits on the surface of your red blood cells. There are 2 different blood antigens, A and B. If you have the A antigen, you have type A blood. If you have the B antigen, you have type B blood.
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- Antigens on Surface of Red Blood Cell
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- Antibodies Blood plasma is packed with proteins called antibodies. The body produces a wide variety of antibodies that will recognize and attack foreign molecules. A persons plasma does not contain any antibodies that will bind to molecules that are part of his or her own body.
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- Blood Transfusions It is important to carefully match the donor and recipient blood types. If the donors blood cells have antigen that are different from those of the recipient, antibodies in the recipients blood recognize the donor blood as foreign. This triggers an immune response resulting in blood clotting (agglutination).
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- Blood Transfusions AntigenAntibodyCan donate to Can receive from A B AB O
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- Relative Abundance of Blood Types ABABO 40-42%10-12%3-5%43-45%
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- Rhesus Factor (Rh) If a person has a positive Rh factor, this means that their blood contains a protein that is also found in Rhesus monkeys. Most people (about 85%) have a positive Rh factor Rh is expressed as either positive or negative. The Rh factor, like other antigens, is found on the surface of the red blood cells.
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