Blood Pressure. Blood pressure is the force of blood against the arterial walls. Responsible for the flow of blood. Blood pressure is the result of: -

Download Blood Pressure. Blood pressure is the force of blood against the arterial walls. Responsible for the flow of blood. Blood pressure is the result of: -

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<ul><li>Slide 1</li></ul> <p>Blood Pressure Slide 2 Blood pressure is the force of blood against the arterial walls. Responsible for the flow of blood. Blood pressure is the result of: - The pumping action of the heart. - Resistance of the blood vessels. - Volume of blood. Slide 3 Blood pressure also depends on: Distance from the heart. Would B/P in the legs be lower or higher than in the arm? Slide 4 Pumping Action of the Heart Systolic Phase- Systole Ventricles Contract Blood flows to the body Slide 5 Pumping Action of the Heart Diastolic Phase Diastole Heart relaxes Slide 6 Blood Pressure is Elevated by: Sex and age of the patient. Exercise, eating, emotions Stimulants Obesity Arteriorsclerosis Diabetes Pain Heredity factors Some drugs Slide 7 Blood Pressure is lowered by: Fasting Rest Depressants Weight loss Loss of blood or shock Diuretics Slide 8 Blood Pressure is: Recorded as an improper fraction. 120/80 Numerator equals systolic pressure, the first sound you will hear. Denominator equals diastolic pressure, the last sound you will hear. Slide 9 Blood Pressure Sounds are: Auscultated through a stethoscope Sounds are correlated with the readings on a sphygmomanometer. Blood pressure is recorded in milligrams of mercury. (mm HG) Slide 10 Blood Pressure Variations Determine baseline - From medical record - From systolic palpated pressure Hypertension High blood pressure Hypotension Low blood pressure Orthostatic hypotension decrease in B/P with position change from supine to erect. Slide 11 Equipment Slide 12 Stethoscope Slide 13 Slide 14 Aneroid Sphygmomanometer Slide 15 Use the proper size cuff Undersized cuff artificially raises blood pressure Oversized cuff artificially lowers blood pressure Slide 16 The "ideal" cuff should have a bladder length that is 80% and a width that is at least 40% of arm circumference (a length- to-width ratio of 2:1). Slide 17 Mercury Sphygmomanometer Slide 18 Positioning for BP Ideally have the patient seated and their arm at heart level. Make sure that they do not have any tight clothing which may constrict their arm. Slide 19 Locate the brachial pulse Palpate in the antecubital fossa for the point of maximal pulsation of the brachial artery. Slide 20 Positioning of Blood Pressure Cuff Cuff applied directly over skin (not through clothes) Clothes artificially raises blood pressure Center inflatable bladder over brachial artery Position lower cuff border 1 inch above antecubital space Slide 21 Estimation of systolic pressure The examiner should assess the estimated systolic pressure. To do this, palpate the patients radial pulse. Now inflate the cuff until you feel the exact point when the pulse disappears. The point on the manometer at this moment represents the estimated systolic pressure. Slide 22 Assessment of systolic &amp; diastolic pressure Place your stethoscope over the brachial artery area. Now inflatean extra 30mmHg worth of pressure above the estimate systolic pressure (e.g. if the estimate systolic pressure was 120mmHg inflate the cuff to 150mmHg). Slide 23 Korotkoff Sounds Slide 24 Now slowly release the pressure in the cuff by using the valve. The pressure should be reduced at a rate of 2-3mmHg per second. The point where consecutive tapping noises (i.e. Korotkoff phase 1) occur you should read off the pressure on the manometer i.e. the systolic pressure. Slide 25 When the consecutive heart beat sounds finally disappear (i.e. Korotkoff phase 5), read off the measurement on the manometer. This represents the diastolic pressure. Slide 26 Trouble-shooting False high reading - Cuff too small - Cuff too loose - Slow cuff release - Column or dial not at eye level - Anxiety or recent exercise Slide 27 False low reading - Incorrect position of armbe sure to position at the level of the heart - Failure to notice auscultatory gap: Sounds fade out for 10 to 15 mm Hg then return Inaudibility of low volume sounds Column or dial not at eye level Slide 28 Blood pressure values Systolic normal range 90 140 mm Hg Diastolic normal range 60 90 mm Hg Pulse pressure: difference between systolic &amp; diastolic pressure, approximately 40 mm Hg Slide 29 Blood pressure readings Use same arm for readings Do not take B/P on arm with: An IV Paralysis Injury A V shunt Edema </p>


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