blood and blood transfusions

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  • BLOOD & BLOOD TRANSFUSIONS DR.SHALINI SINGH (PG)
  • BLOOD blood and blood transfusions 2
  • OBJECTIVES Properties and functions of blood Plasma proteins Bone marrow Red blood cells White blood cells Platelets blood and blood transfusions 3
  • Blood is considered as river of life, fluid of life, fluid of growth, fluid of health. Average human has 5 liters of blood i.e 8% of total body weight. It is a transporting fluid. It carries vital substances to all parts of body. 4blood and blood transfusions
  • Properties Of Blood Color range Oxygen-rich blood is scarlet red bright crimson Oxygen-poor blood is purple red. Red color comes from the several million red cells, present in it pH must remain between 7.35 7.45 Temp 38 c or 100.4 F 5blood and blood transfusions
  • Blood is 5 times more viscous than water. Blood is a specialized type of connective tissue in which living blood cells, (formed elements), are suspended in a non living fluid matrix called plasma. Cellular Part (Formed Elements) Non cellular part (Plasma) 6blood and blood transfusions
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  • Functions of blood Blood performs a number of functions. Distribution Regulation Protection Distribution Functions Nutritive Function: Respiratory Function: Excretory Function: Transport Function: 8 blood and blood transfusions
  • Regulation Functions Maintainance Functions Buffering Functions Protection Functions Preventing blood loss Defensive function 9blood and blood transfusions
  • PLASMA Plasma is the fluid portion of the blood. It constitutes about 5% of the body weight. If blood is allowed to clot, then a clear, straw colored fluid oozes out. This is the serum . Serum is similar to plasma, except that serum does not have clotting factors. SERUM = PLASMA - FIBRINOGEN blood and blood transfusions 10
  • It contain all the vital substances. These vital substances include digested food, salts, hormones, enzymes, substances essential for clotting of blood, and antibodies , which are important for defense. blood and blood transfusions 11
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  • Separation Of Plasma Proteins Precipitation method Salting out method Electrophoretic method cohns fractional precipitation method Ultracentrifugation method gel filtration chromatography Immunoelectrophoretic method blood and blood transfusions 13
  • PROPERTIES Molecular weight Albumin- 69,000 globulin- 1,56,000 fibrinogen- 4,00,000 Oncotic pressure- about 25 mm Hg Specific gravity- 1.026 Buffer capacity- 1/6 of total buffering action of blood ORIGIN In embryo synthesized by mesenchymal cells. In adults mainly from reticuloendothelial cells of liver blood and blood transfusions 14
  • Functions of plasma Helps in transport of substances in the body Maintains colloid osmotic pressure of blood Causes blood clotting because it contains the fibrinogen and prothrombin Stores proteins for supply in needs Helps provides viscosity to blood Contains antibodies and antitoxins 15blood and blood transfusions
  • BONE MARROW The bone marrow is present in the bone cavities. It can be considered as one of the largest organs in the body, and also one of the most active. In children, blood cells are produced in the marrow cavities of all the bones. Gradually, it gets replaced by fat (yellow marrow). In the adult blood cells are produced in the bone marrow of selected bones (e.g. backbone vertebral column, ribs, bones of the skull, etc.) 16blood and blood transfusions
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  • Bones require their own blood supply which travels through the periosteum to the inner bone marrow. 18blood and blood transfusions
  • RED BLOOD CELLS RBCs are also called erythrocytes . They are tiny (7.5u in diameter, 2u thick) biconcave discs. They survive for about 120 days. RBCs are non nucleated formed elements in the blood. The average normal RBC count is for men 5.4 million/uL for women 4.5 million/uL 19
  • 20blood and blood transfusions Production of Erythrocytes: Erythropoiesis
  • Hemoglobin is the most important component of red blood cells. It is composed of a protein called heme, which binds oxygen. In the lungs, oxygen is exchanged for carbon dioxide. Abnormalities of an individuals hemoglobin value can indicate defects in red blood cell balance. Both low and high values can indicate disease states. 21blood and blood transfusions
  • Formation of RBCs Takes place in the bone marrow. A feedback exists if the RBC count rises, further increases are inhibited. Low levels of oxygen in the atmosphere stimulate the formation of RBCs. This is an important part of the bodys adjustment to high altitudes. People living in the mountains actually do have higher RBC counts than usual. RBC formation is regulated by a substance secreted by the kidneys. 22
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  • Destruction of RBCs About 5 X 10 11 RBCs are destroyed everyday, in the liver and spleen. Functions of RBCs Carriage of oxygen. Hemoglobin (Hb) the red pigment acts as the vehicle for the transport of oxygen from the lungs, via the heart to the rest of the body. Also carries CO2, though greater amounts of CO2 are transported dissolved in plasma. Average Hb level in normal men 16gdL and 14gdL in normal women. blood and blood transfusions 24
  • Iron is essential for the synthesis of Hb. Hence after excessive bleeding iron supplements (tonics) plus a diet rich in iron are necessary for more Hb to be formed. Carriage of CO2 (less significant) as described above, most of the CO2 is dissolved in plasma. Presence of specific substances on their surface, which are responsible for typing blood into different groups. blood and blood transfusions 25
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  • Variations in number of RBCs PHYSIOLOGIC VARIATIONS Increase Age Sex High altitude Muscular exercise Emotional conditions Increased environmental temperatureAfter meals Decrease High barometric pressure During sleep pregnancy blood and blood transfusions 27
  • PATHOLOGIC VARIATIONS Increase polycythemia Decrease-- anemia blood and blood transfusions 28
  • WHITE BLOOD CELLS WBCs or leukocytes consists of 5 categories of cells. Each category has a distinct shape and appearance. Some cells are smaller than RBCs (5u in diameter) whereas others are definitely bigger (15 u in diameter). blood and blood transfusions 29
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  • Formation and destruction of WBCs The WBCs are formed in the bone marrow. The different categories of cells have different stimuli for production. For e.g. one category (called neutrophils ) are produced in large number whenever there is short or severe (acute) infection. There life span also differs. Some categories (e.g. neutrophils) may survive upto 7 hours. In contrast other cells ( lymphocytes ) are called memory cells . blood and blood transfusions 31
  • They are able to remember an invader for several months, even years. If the invader enters the body again, these memory cells are alerted, and the bodys response to the second invasion is much more extensive and rapid. blood and blood transfusions 32
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  • Functions of WBCs WBCs are concerned with defense . Some of them are concerned with fighting acute (short, severe) infections, whereas others fight chronic infections. Some WBCs are capable of moving in the tissues, acting like vigilant guards. If they encounter a bacterium, they may consume it or make it inactive. The pus which may be seen oozing out of an infected wound, is made up of dead WBCs . A particular category of WBCs the eosinophils are increased in allergic reactions and also in cases of worm infestation. blood and blood transfusions 34

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