blood anatomy ch. 12. average adult has 5l of blood average adult has 5l of blood cells form mostly...

Download Blood Anatomy Ch. 12. Average adult has 5L of blood Average adult has 5L of blood Cells form mostly in bone marrow Cells form mostly in bone marrow

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  • BloodAnatomy Ch. 12

  • Average adult has 5L of blood

    Cells form mostly in bone marrow

    Fig 12.1

  • Blood compositionA sample is 45% cells:Mostly red blood cellsSome white bc and platelets

    55% is plasma, a clearish liquidComplex mixture of water, amino acids, proteins, carbs, electrolytes and wastes

  • Red Blood Cells

  • ErythrocytesThe shape (biconcave disks) increases surface area where gases can diffuse

    Each rbc is 1/3 hemoglobin (by volume)

    Do not have nuclei, so they cant divide or make proteins; gives them more space for hemoglobin.

  • Tastes like chicken

  • Blood colorColor comes from hemoglobin (iron)

    When it combines with O2, it turns bright red, and when it releases it, turns darker.

  • # of rbc determines oxygen-carrying capacity

    Athletes have higher levels

    Men- ~5.5 million per mm3Women- ~5 million per mm3

  • superman vs doomsday - Google Video

  • RBCsAvg lifespan is 4 months

    In high altitudes, more rbcs are formed

    Fig. 12.3

    Vitamin B12 and folic acid influence rbc production

  • Iron is required

  • AnemiaToo little hemoglobin or rbcs

    Appear pale and lack energy

  • Anemia

  • White Blood Cells

  • LeukocytesProtects against disease and infections

    white blood cells - Google Video

  • 5 types of wbc (Table 12.1)1. Neutrophils: eats small particles

    2. Eosinophils: kills parasites, controls inflammation

    3. Basophils: releases heparin and histamine

  • Wbcs cont.4. Monocyte: eats larger particles

    5. Lymphocyte: provides immunity

  • WBC countsUsu. 5000-10,000 per cubic mL

    Changes in response to infection/sickness

  • Functions of WBCMake antibodies that destroy or disable foreign particles

    Can leave blood stream to fight infections

  • LeukemiaToo many WBCs and too few RBCs

    Cancer of the blood

    Different types of leukemia

    With treatment, 50-80% of patients enter remission

  • PlateletsThrombocytes

    Fragments of large blood cells in red bone marrow

    Lack nuclei

  • PlateletsThey help close breaks in vessels

    Help form scabs and initiate clots

  • Blood PlasmaAbout 92% water, straw colored liquid

    Has 3 main proteins: albumin, globulin, and fibrinogin

    Table 12.2

  • Hemostasis-stopping bleedingPlatelets adhere to any rough surface, collagen, and each other

    This forms a plug to stop small breaks

    Larger breaks may require a clot (Fig. 12.12)

  • CoagulationCauses a blood to clotAnticoagulants-keep it from clotting

    Most clots disappear with time (will dissolve in moving blood)

  • Blood groups

  • Surface molecules-antigens


    Everyone has either A, B, AB, or O blood

  • ABO blood groupBased on 2 major antigens: A and B, on rbc membranes

    Type A person has only A antigenAB person has both antigensO person has neither antigen

  • Table 12.4Blood typeAntigenAntibody

    AAAnti-BBBAnti-BABA and BNeither anti-A nor anti-BONeitherBoth

  • Therefore:An antibody of one type will react with an antigen of the same type, and clump, which is bad

    This is why someone w/ type A blood cant receive type B or AB blood

  • Giving blood (Table 12.5)Since type AB lacks both antibodies, they can receive any blood typeAB people are universal recipients

    Type O lacks antigens A and B, so it can be transferred to anyone. Type O people are universal donors

  • Rh factorRh antigens named after rhesus monkey (1st studied in them)

    It is an antigen+ if it has it- if not

  • HemophiliaBlood doesnt clot normally (missing a protein)

    Is genetic, and usually only occurs in males


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