Black Power & Black Nationalism African-American History.

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  • Slide 1
  • Black Power & Black Nationalism African-American History
  • Slide 2
  • Background: 1800s Many whites favored colonization in 1800s American Colonization Society founded Liberia in 1821 for that purpose, but only 12,000 went there Dr. Martin Delaney led emigration movement in 1850s 1860s 20,000 emigrated to Canada & Haiti in early 1800s Bishop Henry M. Turner called for limited colonization of Africa in late 1800s Calculated U.S. govt owed ex-slaves $40 billion, & wanted some of that money to fund emigration Southern white Senators introduced bill in 1890 to fund emigration
  • Slide 3
  • Background: 1900s Marcus Garveys UNIA made black nationalism popular in the 1920s Cyril V. Briggs & Oscar Brown called for separate black 49 th state F.S. Cherry founded Church of God in Philadelphia in 1915, claiming blacks were really Falasha Jews from Ethiopia Marcus Garvey
  • Slide 4
  • Black Muslims Timothy Drew (Noble Drew Ali) formed Moorish- American Science Temple in Newark, NJ in 1913 Wallace D. Fard appeared in Detroit in July 1930, claiming to be prophet from Mecca Claimed blacks were lost tribe of Shabazz Evil scientist Yakub created race of white devils, who were given 6,000 years to rule over the Black Nation Elijah (Poole) Muhammad took over leadership of Nation of Islam following W.D. Fards disappearance from Chicago in 1934
  • Slide 5
  • Malcolm X & the Nation of Islam Malcolm Little was son of Baptist preacher and UNIA organizer Joined Nation of Islam in prison in 1948; Minister of Harlem temple in 1954 Broke with Nation in March 1964 & made pilgrimage to Mecca Founded Organization of Afro-American Unity Murdered in Feb. 1965 Malcolm X and Elijah Mohammad
  • Slide 6
  • Malcolm Xs Message Attacked King & others as Uncle Toms Said integration was false goal: what was needed was real revolution Argued ghettoes were white creations Rejected Christianity as slaveowners religion of white supremacy Malcolm X speaking at Harlem rally
  • Slide 7
  • The Appeal of Black Nationalism & the Nation of Islam Black nationalism always appealed to Northern blacks more than Southern blacks Southerners could believe rest of U.S. wasnt racist Northerners knew better Islam better suited to black nationalism because it lacks the concept of grace Christianity requires one to love & forgive enemies Islam emphasizes divine justice & retribution American Christianity cast in white, middle-class mold Islams strict ascetic code addressed problems of ghettoes through self-help
  • Slide 8
  • Pan-Africanism African Americans related to colonial experience of Africans (and Asians) Immanuel Wallersteinss world system thesis provided Marxist explanation for colonialism Independence of African nations seen as model
  • Slide 9
  • Black Power New SNCC leaders Stokely Carmichael & Rap Brown abandon nonviolent strategy and goal of integration in 1966 CORE followed suit in 1967 under Floyd McKissick Black Panthers founded in Oakland in 1966 by Huey Newton & Bobby Seale Stokely Carmichael, 1970 H. Rap Brown
  • Slide 10
  • Black Power Ideology Insisted on being called Black to assert that Black is beautiful Threatened violence, especially in retaliation for police brutality Condemned Vietnam War as unjust continuation of colonial rule over people of color Bobby Seale & Huey Newton
  • Slide 11
  • Black Studies San Francisco State introduced 1 st Black Studies program under Nathan Hare Antioch College est. Afro-American Studies Institute that excluded whites Kenneth Clark resigned in protest Militants at Cornell demanded separate Black College of Black Studies in 1968

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