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  • Castiglione-Solferino 5th August 1796.

    A scenario for:

    Grand Grand Grand Grand Manoeuvre: Manoeuvre: Manoeuvre: Manoeuvre:

    Black Powder & Blue SteelBlack Powder & Blue SteelBlack Powder & Blue SteelBlack Powder & Blue Steel

    Napoleonic MiniaturesNapoleonic MiniaturesNapoleonic MiniaturesNapoleonic Miniatures

    Wargames RulesWargames RulesWargames RulesWargames Rules

    By Michael CollinsBy Michael CollinsBy Michael CollinsBy Michael Collins....

  • Castiglione-Solferino 5th August 1796.

    The Castiglione-Solferino game played at PAW 2011:

    Solferino bottom-left, Stafallo held by Schubirz`s light division at the bottom right, with the main Austrian positions stretching from Pozzo Catena to the Monte Medolano in the distance.

    Augereau`s corps is arrayed in columns poised to attack the Austrian right and centre.

    (Photo: Malcolm Williams)

    An AAR from this game is at the back of this booklet.

  • Castiglione-Solferino: August 5th 1796.

    Umpire`s Notes: The historical battle: In conjunction with two other previously fought engagements, the battle of Castiglione-Solferino, was a victory for Napoleon; pushing Wurmser away and preventing him from relieving the siege of Mantua. Wurmser`s army, already defeated in detail, was outnumbered and out manoeuvred at this battle, and as Bill Peterson points out in his “virtual battlefields” article on the napoleon series, it had many of the key “Napoleonic” elements of battle; an early, limited, diversionary attack, a grand-tactical flanking move by Sérurier’s Division, a massed battery of 18 guns against the redoubt of Monte Medolano, which anchored the Austrian left followed by an assault by Verdier`s grenadier battalions, and a final general attack on the enemy’s weakened left wing. This decisive action was largely carried out by Augereau`s corps and supported by Massena’s brigades.

    Wurmser`s historical dispositions. The Austrian general’s right wing, under the command of General Baron Paul Davidovich, rested upon the heights of the moraine in front of the village of Pozzo Catena; it was arrayed in two lines with a redoubt of 8 six-pounders in its centre. Although it might immediately look clumsy, this battle array makes sense because it protected the village of Solferino through which the Austrian lines of communication ran and the path of their retreat lay. Wurmser`s left was angled slightly outward from the lines formed by the right wing. This left wing included some of Davidovich`s units; Lipthay`s brigade and Gummer’s under the command of General-Major Baron Carl Philipp Sebottendorf. This wing was formed in one line that extended to the redoubt of Monte Medolano. The Austrian cavalry of General Placzek; 4 divisions of the 2

    nd and 4

    th Hussars (each division

    being comprised of two squadrons), was interspersed between the intervals of the Austrian regiments. The second squadron of Meszaros Uhlans was positioned behind the Monte Medolano redoubt. General Baron Anton Schübirz`s light division was stationed at Staffalo, and it guarded the right of Wurmser`s main position in front of Solferino.

    Napoleon’s historical dispositions. Augereau`s corps was the main force opposing Wurmser`s two wings. It’s left resting on the foot of the hills at the small settlement of Grole. Massena`s Corps was on the other side of the hills, to the north east on flat ground at Barche di Castiglione. The Reserve under Marmont was behind Augereau`s right flank.

    The scenario: Assuming that much of the opening moves have taken their course - amongst them Napoleon’s intended feint and retreat luring the Austrian line forward; the forces are finally arrayed, and this scenario begins at about 09:30 hrs. This scenario concentrates on the southern half of the battlefield and the rather more decisive combats between Augereau`s corps and Wurmser`s left, the reserve’s action on the Austrian extreme left and the arrival of Leclerc`s and Despinoy`s brigades and their advance across the heights towards Solferino. Therefore only a small part of Massena`s Corps present is involved in this scenario on the French left. With the arrival of Colonel Weidenfeld`s brigade the Austrian retreat was covered and this reinforcement appears for the Austrians late in the game too.

  • Castiglione-Solferino: August 5th 1796.

    Umpire`s Notes: Player deployments: Have the two players determine their more exact deployments separately by annotating copies of their own maps. After his deployment is completed, inform the Napoleon player that the flank attack by Serurier`s division under the command of Fiorella has been miss-timed, and Wurmser has managed to block the flanking movement to his left and rear. The consequence of this is that the decisive action must be made on the centre and right; on this battlefield alone You have therefore Augereau`s corps and the reserve to win the battle, part of Massena`s corps is beyond the hills and may engage or attack the Austrians advance guard which is believed to be in Staffalo.

    French Fatigue: From turn thirty-five in the game, French movement will be limited by the fatigue that had been caused by a week of marching and counter-marching leading up to this battle. From that turn, French infantry movement rates will be -4 centimetres and cavalry -5 centimetres. So this is a game that the French player must move his forces quickly to gain a result that will be better that the historical outcome.

    Arrival of General Bertin and Leclerc: Leclerc`s and Despinoy`s troops will be arriving at the point on the map marked with a French flag and “Despinoy” between 1 and 2 pm. Announcing that the reinforcements have been seen approaching the battlefield, at 1 pm the umpire is to roll two six sided dice: the red equalling plus turns and blue the minus. With 13:32 hrs being as the starting time, therefore the die rolls of red: +5, and blue: -2 will give a net result of +3 three turns from 13:32 hrs which will be at 13:44.

    Colonel Weidenfeld: In the same manner as the arrival of Despinoy, the appearance of this Austrian brigade is to be diced for by the umpire at 14:00. Weidenfield`s brigade may enter the table deploying from the road marked “B” on the map, or it may be immediately ordered by Wurmser to take up a position in the line as it enters the table.

  • Castiglione-Solferino: August 5th 1796.

    Umpire`s Notes: Victory conditions (some guidelines): Often the results of games are quite obvious to players and there is no need to count and compare each side’s points to determine who has won, but this is a game for the French to win! However, an early decisive result is needed before turn 35 for the French to gain a better than historical result. A decisive result would be for two Austrian brigades to be routing and for the French to have Augereau`s or Marmont`s infantry in an ordered pursuit of the enemy. In our game at PAW 2011, although their commands were routed, the Austrians managed to extricate their forces and so avoid total destruction - the Austrians left and centre had routed only after French fatigue had set in. We judged that Wurmser had lost the battle because he had two broken commands in his army, whereas the French only had three battalions in poor morale and that number included one battalion from Massena`s command attacking Staffalo. Until the arrival of Leclerc and Despinoy forces on the table will be fairly balanced. The main danger to the Austrian player is his left flank. The Austrian player’s placement of his commands will probably be crucial to the result. He will also have to protect his lines of communication and retreat through Solferino, his forces will be stretched. An Austrian player may claim a “victory” (and that is a better than historical result) if a withdrawal is ordered after 14:00 hrs and/or the game ends with only one of his brigades in poor morale. If the game is undecided, judge victory by the numbers of broken commands in poor morale on both sides at the arrival of Colonel Weidenfeld`s brigade. It is possible that game may be continued to a point at which the players are satisfied with the outcome and the nature of the victory to either side, if the arrival of Colonel Weidenfeld`s is timely and going to play a significant role (this brigade is quite a strong one).

  • Castiglione-Solferino: August 5th 1796.

    Austrian player/s briefing: Field Marshal Count Dagobert Sigismond de Wurmser: Your aim is to hold Bonaparte here from advancing to Mantua and to buy some time for the besieged Austrian forces there to replenish their supplies.

    Austrian dispositions: The main part of your army is to be arrayed between Pozzo Catena (in front of Solferino) and the redoubt at Monte Medalano. General Baron Anton Schübirz`s light division is stationed around Staffalo, guarding the right of your main position in front of Solferino. Between Pozzo Catena and Solferino there is the church of San Nicholas (described as a “castle” it provides a good defensive position, it is a square surrounded by some substantial buildings. The single building to its left on the map represents a Norman tower. The Austrian lines of retreat run from the two roads out of Solferino marked “C” and “D” at the bottom right of the Austrian map. Colonel Weidenfeld`s command is expected to arrive from Peschiera at approximately 14:30 hrs.

    Notes on units in the Austrian order of battle: Line and grenadier battalions with two bases are of a reduced strength and therefore will not be able to deploy skirmishers from their third ranks. Larger infantry battalions of about 900 - 1,000 men have five bases. The Grenz in Schübirz`s advance guard have two bases formed “E” class troops or two bases of “C” class skirmishers. They may operate as a flanking brigade within the rules. Austrian artillery includes battalion guns and in the OOB these are noted with a “B”. For example: “BG 2x3pdr: 1 light base.”

    Victory conditions: You need to hold this position on the map and halt this French assault. To your left and rear at San Cassiano, a turning movement by a French brigade has been checked by your forces. As a consequence of the French in your left and rear, any withdrawal must be conducted through Solferino; your lines of communication and a possible retreat are via the two roads marked “C” and “D” leading out of Solferino at the bottom right of the map. Road “C” runs by Cassiano, Carviano and to Borgehtto, and road “D” also leads to Borghetto on the Mincio river.

  • Castiglione-Solferino: August 5th 1796.

    French player/s briefing: General-in-Chief of the Army of Italy: Général Napoleon Bonaparte: This is your chance to defeat and destroy Wurmser`s force. Off table you have Sérurier’s Division making a grand-tactical flanking move, Augereau`s Corps is directly opposed to Wurmser`s line of battle and Marmont commands an all-arms reserve. With Augereau`s corps to pin the enemy, you can expect Sérurier’s Division under Fiorella to weaken the Austrian lines in facing you. Once weakened you have the reserve at your disposal to exploit any success. Despinoy, Leclerc and Bertin will be arriving on your left in the early afternoon and will advance upon the area which you may reasonably expect the Austrians to be defending more strongly. The villages of Pozzo Catena, the Church of San Nicholas and Solferino may be garrisoned, as these settlements guard Wurmser`s possible escape route from the trap that you have set him.

    French dispositions. Augereau`s corps is your main force opposing Wurmser. Augereau`s left rests on the hills near to the settlement of Grole. Massena`s Corps is on the other side of the hills, to the north east on flat ground at Barche di Castiglione. The Reserve under Marmont starts behind Augereau`s right flank between road “B” which leads to Castiglione, and road “A” which goes to Levadello and Borghetto.

    Arrival of General Bertin and Leclerc: Leclerc`s and Despinoy`s troops will be arriving at the point on the map marked with a French flag and “Despinoy” sometime between 1 and 2 pm.

    Victory conditions: Most of the French forces here have spent the previous week continuously marching to get to this battlefield; it is important therefore that you must achieve a speedy victory before the fatigue of the army catches up with them!

  • Castiglione-Solferino: 5th August 1796

    Austrian UNIT ROSTER: Field Marshal Count Dagobert Sigismond de Wurmser (Average) HQ Guard : IR#5 : (I base) Stabsdragoner : 1 Sqdn (1 base) General Baron Paul Davidovich Army command and control rating is “Poor”. General Baron Anton Schübirz (Good): Unit No:

    Unit Class:

    Unit name & notes:

    1 E Jagers Mahoney : 1st and 2nd Coys (2 bases) (C class skirm) 2 E Carlstädter Grenz : 3rd Battalion (2 bases) (C class skirm) 3 E Szluiner Grenz : 1st and 2nd Coys (2 bases) (C class skirm)

    4 E Szluiner Grenz : 3rd and 4th Coys (2 bases) (C class skirm) 5 E Szluiner Grenz : 5th and 6th Coys (2 bases) (C class skirm) 6 C Meszaros Uhlans : 1st Sqdn (1 base) 7 B Erdody Hussars : 2 Sqdns (2 bases) Artillery: 1 Foot Artillery : 2 sections (4x 3pdrs) (2 light bases) General Spiegel (first line) (Average): 8 C 2nd Battalion IR#45 Latterman 9 C 3rd Battalion IR#45 Latterman 10 C 1st Battalion IR#4 Deutschmeister 11 C 2nd Battalion IR#4 Deutschmeister General Baron Anton Lipthay (Average): 12 D 1st Battalion IR#13 Reisky (BG 2x6pdr: 1 medium base) 13 D 2nd Battalion IR#13 Reisky (BG 2x6pdr: 1 medium base) 14 D 3rd Battalion IR#13 Reisky (2 bases) no skirmishers 15 D 1st Battalion IR#8 Huff (BG 2x6pdr: 1 medium base) 16 D 2nd Battalion IR#8 Huff (BG 2x6pdr: 1 medium base) 17 E Karlstädter Grenz : 3rd Battalion (C class skirm) 18 D 1st Battalion IR#40 Mitovsk (BG 2x6pdr: 1 medium base) General Baron Anton Mittrovsky (Average): 19 E 3rd Battalion IR#10 Kheul (5 bases) 20 D 3rd Battalion IR#27 Strassoldo (2 bases) no skirmishers 21 E 3rd Battalion IR#11 Wallis 22 C 1st Battalion IR#25 Brechainville (5 bases) (BG 2x3pdr: 1 light base) 23 C 2nd Battalion IR#25 Brechainville (BG 2x3pdr: 1 light base) 24 C Grenadiers IR#27 Strassoldo (2 bases) no skirmishers

  • Castiglione-Solferino: 5th August 1796

    Austrian UNIT ROSTER: General-Major Baron Carl Philipp Sebottendorf (Average): General Gummer (Average): Unit No:

    Unit Class:

    Unit name & notes:

    25 C 1st Battalion IR#19 Alvintzi (BG 2x6pdr: 1 medium base) 26 C 2nd Battalion IR#19 Alvintzi 27 D 2nd Battalion IR#21 Gemmingen (5 bases)

    General Placzek (Average):

    28 B 2nd Erdody Hussars : 1st + 2nd Sqdns (2 bases) 29 B 2nd Erdody Hussars : 3rd + 4th Sqdns (2 bases)

    30 B 4th Hussars Erzh Josef Anton: 1st + 2nd Sqdns (2 bases) 31 B 4th Hussars Erzh Josef Anton: 3rd + 4th Sqdns (2 bases)

    32 C Meszaros Uhlans : 2nd Sqdn (2 bases ) Cavalry Artillery: 2 Cavalry Battery: 2 sections (2x 6pdrs and 2x 7lb howitzers) (2 medium bases)

    Artillery: Left Redoubt on the Monte Medolano. 3 Foot Artillery : 4 sections (8x 12pdr) (4 heavy bases) Artillery: Centre Redoubt in front of Solferino. 4 Foot Artillery : 4 sections (8x 6pdr) (4 medium bases) Arriving form Peschiera/Pozzolengo at about 14:30hrs: Colonel Weidenfeld (Average): 33 C 1st Battalion IR#24 Preib (5 bases) 34 C 2nd Battalion IR#24 Preib (5 bases) 35 D IR#27 Strassoldo 36 D IR#23 Toscanna Artillery: 5 Foot Artillery :

    1 section (2x 12pdrs) (1 heavy base) 1 section (2x 6pdrs) (1 medium base) (This counts as a heavy battery)

    37 B Wurmser Hussars 1st squadron (1 base)

  • Castiglione-Solferino: 5 August 1796

    French UNIT ROSTER:

    General-in-Chief of the Army of Italy : Général Napoleon Bonaparte (Brilliant) Army command and control rating is “Brilliant”. Corps Général André Masséna (Good) Général Claude Perrin Victor (Good):

    1 C 1st Battalion 4th DB Légère 2 D 2nd Battalion 4th DB Légère 3 D 3rd Battalion 4th DB Légère 4 D 2nd Battalion 11th DB Ligne 5 C 25th Chasseurs à Cheval Regt : (2 bases) Corps Général Pierre-Francois-Charles Augereau`s (Average) Général Victoire-Emmanuel Leclerc (Good) (arriving at 1-2 pm) 6 C 1st Battalion 4th DB Ligne 7 D 2nd Battalion 4th DB Ligne 8 D 3rd Battalion 4th DB Ligne 9 C 22nd Chasseurs à Cheval Regt : (2 bases) Général Hyacinthe-Francois-Joseph Despinoy (under Général Bertin) marching from Brescia with Général Leclerc (arriving at 1-2 pm) Général Bertin (Good): 10 C 1st Battalion 5th DB Ligne 11 D 2nd Battalion 5th DB Ligne 12 D 3rd Battalion 5th DB Ligne Général Pelletier (Good): 13 C 1st Battalion 69th DB Ligne 14 D 2nd Battalion 69th DB Ligne 15 C 1st Battalion 45th DB Ligne 16 D 2nd Battalion 45th DB Ligne 17 D 3rd Battalion 45th DB Ligne 18 C 20th Dragoon Regt : (3 bases)

    Général Robert (Good):

    19 C 1st Battalion 17th DB Légère 20 D 2nd Battalion 17th DB Légère 21 D 3rd Battalion 17th DB Légère 22 C 1st Battalion 51st DB Ligne 23 D 2nd Battalion 51st DB Ligne 24 D 3rd Battalion 51st DB Ligne 25 C 1st Hussar Regt : (3 bases)

    Artillery: 1 Foot Artillery : 1 Section (2x 12pdr) 1 Section (2x 8pdr) (1 heavy base)

    (This counts as a heavy battery).

  • Castiglione-Solferino: 5 August 1796

    French UNIT ROSTER: (Reserve) Général Charles Edward Jennings Kilmaine (sick) Command is under Chef de Brigade Auguste-Frédéric-Louis Viesse de Marmont (Good): Général Marc-Antoine de la Bonninière Comte de Beaumont (Good):

    Unit No:

    Unit Class:

    Unit name & notes:

    26 C 5th Dragoon Regt : (1 base) 27 C 7th Hussar Regt : (3 bases) 28 C 10th Chasseurs à Cheval Regt. Général Claude Jean-Antoine Verdier (Good): 29 C Combined Grenadiers : 5th Battalion 30 C Combined Grenadiers : 6th and 7th Battalions Général Elzéard-August Cousin de Dommartin (Good): Artillery: 2 Foot Artillery : 3 Sections (6x 8pdr) (3 medium bases) 3 Foot Artillery : 1 Section (2x 8pdr) (1 medium bases) 2 Sections (4x 6pdr) from

    Augereau (2 medium bases)

  • Grand Manoeuvre : Black Powder & Blue Steel Battle Timetable/Record. (Each 4-minute segment corresponds to one game turn) Spaces have been left for umpires/players notes, for planned manoeuvres or events in the course of a battle.

    09:28

    10:28

    09:32

    10:32

    09:36

    10:36

    09:40

    10:40

    09:44

    10:44

    09:48

    10:48

    09:52

    10:52

    09:56

    10:56

    10:00

    11:00

    10:04

    11:04

    10:08

    11:08

    10:12

    11:12

    10:16

    11:16

    10:20

    11:20

    10:24

    11:24

  • Grand Manoeuvre : Black Powder & Blue Steel Battle Timetable/Record. (Each 4-minute segment corresponds to one game turn) Spaces have been left for umpires/players notes, for planned manoeuvres or events in the course of a battle.

    11:28

    12:28

    11:32

    12:32

    11:36

    12:36

    11:40

    12:40

    11:44

    12:44

    11:48

    12:48

    11:52 All French units` movement will affected by fatigue from this turn.

    12:52

    11:56

    12:56

    12:00

    13:00 Umpire to dice for the arrival of General Bertin and Leclerc (+/- turns from 13:32 hrs.

    12:04

    13:04

    12:08

    13:08

    12:12

    13:12

    12:16

    13:16

    12:20

    13:20

    12:24

    13:24

  • Grand Manoeuvre : Black Powder & Blue Steel Battle Timetable/Record. (Each 4-minute segment corresponds to one game turn) Spaces have been left for umpires/players notes, for planned manoeuvres or events in the course of a battle.

    13:28

    14:28

    13:32

    14:32

    13:36

    14:36

    13:40

    14:40

    13:44

    14:44

    13:48

    14:48

    13:52

    14:52

    13:56

    14:56

    14:00 Umpire to dice for the arrival of Colonel Weidenfeld at (+/-) turns from 14:32 hrs.

    14:00

    14:04

    14:04

    14:08

    15:08

    14:12

    15:12

    14:16

    15:16

    14:20

    15:20

    14:24

    15:24

  • The Castiglione-Solferino game played at PAW 2011: 6th February 2011

    French probing and pinning attacks: The game began with Napoleon ordering Augereau to "probe" and engage the Austrian left and Massena to take the village of Staffalo. In turn, Augereau and Massena delegated these tasks to the brigades of Robert and Victor respectively. Robert's engagement with Gummer`s brigade was limited to skirmishing which was not decisive as the Austrian troops were of good quality.

    After 40 minutes or so of skirmishing, and realising that no impression or advantage was to be had, Robert disengaged his brigade and pulled it back in to his original positions. Victor’s assault on the north western end of Staffalo was more eventful however. After some initial stubborn resistance from the 1st and 2nd companies of Mahoney Jagers stationed there, the French columns finally took the end of the village.

    But their advance was halted by the Jagers who were now supported by 4 companies of Szluiner Grenz in the south-eastern end of the village. Two companies of the Grenzers were held as a reserve behind the village. When it became apparent that the attack had broken down, and the 2nd Battalion of the 11th Demi-Brigade`s morale was affected, Victor withdrew his brigade to regroup and possibly assault it again.

    Photograph:

    Massena`s troops assaulting the village of Staffalo to the north of the hills.

  • The Castiglione-Solferino game played at PAW 2011: 6th February 2011

    The French General Attack: Realising that more force was required against the Austrian left, and unaware of events in Staffalo, Napoleon then sent orders to Marmont and Augereau. Augereau was ordered to assault the Austrian centre left which was to Augereau`s front and Marmont was sent orders for the various parts of his reserve corps. The Austrian left redoubt was to be engaged in its flank by the reserve artillery and then assaulted by the combined grenadiers. And once the redoubt was secured, the cavalry of the reserve was ordered to make a movement upon San Cassiano, which was to the rear of the Austrian army to a pursuit of the beaten enemy.

    Augereau`s whole corps advanced slowly and steadily then to close with the Austrians, but their movement was limited by the fatigue that had been caused by a week of marching and counter-marching (from turn twenty in the game this fatigue effect had set in, reducing all the French movement rates). As Augereau believed a fire-fight to be necessary, the first line of his corps array was deployed to line. With Robert’s brigade in two lines and Pelletier`s in one, Only Robert`s supporting second line was in column formation.

    From this point almost all goes well for Napoleon. The massed battery fire upon the flank of the Medolano redoubt slowly whittled away at the Austrian battery and once fully committed Augereau`s corps proved to be stronger than Lipthay`s and Gummer's brigades. Most decisive in this assault was the supporting fire from Augereau`s corps artillery which advanced to normal range and then created a gap in Lipthay`s line. This meant that for as long as this gap existed, Lipthay`s brigade were obliged to test their command reactions. Unfortunately, being arrayed in one single line, there was no immediate reserve available on the Austrian left, and once this had happened there was no time to remedy the situation. Lipthay`s and Gummer's brigades were tested twice until they finally broke.

    Photograph:

    The Austrian Centre and redoubt in front of Pozzo Catena.

  • The Castiglione-Solferino game played at PAW 2011: 6th February 2011

    The Austrians rout and Wurmser`s withdrawal: Acting just in time however, Wurmser had ordered a withdrawal and for General Placzek`s cavalry to cover this retreat and also to fend off the movement of Beaumont's cavalry which, after the potential danger from Medolano redoubt had been neutralised, was slowly making a wide flanking movement around the Austrian right.

    By this time Leclerc`s and Despinoy`s brigades had arrived to add pressure to the withdrawal of the Austrian right. We concluded the game by rolling for the two Austrian brigades to finally rally; Gummer`s brigade rallied first after three turns and Lipthay`s after five and so we judged that there was enough time for the Austrian infantry to escape without any threat of a pursuit and that the Austrian cavalry would have been able to cover this easily and respond to the advancing French cavalry on their left.

    The Result: A French win and this was never in doubt, but it was not a crushing victory. Acting as Wurmser, I was fortunate in getting my army away in time. I was lucky that my left wing routed so far; it prevented the French from catching them in a pursuit! I lost fourteen guns and of these, eight were twelve pounders. Two of my brigades had routed with four of my battalions` morale affected. The French had three battalions in poor morale, but this also includes one from Massena`s command attacking Staffalo.

  • Sources:

    Bernhard Voykowitsch “Castiglione 1796, Napoleon repulses Wurmser`s first attack”. (Helmet Military Publications).

    The Campaign in Italy, 1796-97: The Second Battle of Castiglione 5 August 1796. Virtual Battlefield Tour.

    http://www.napoleon-series.org/military/virtual/c_castiglione1.html

    David Chandler “Campaigns of Napoleon”

    Theodore Ayrualt Dodge “Napoleon: Volume One”

    For OOB`s and their game scenario of the battle:

    Napoleonic Miniatures Wargame Society of Toronto:

    http://www.napoleonicminiatureswargame.com/castiglione0805ob.html