bismarck & german unification “nice guys finish last”

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Centers of Revolution in 1848

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Bismarck & German Unification Nice Guys Finish Last The turning point at which history failed to turn. --- George Macaulay Trevelyn [1937] Centers of Revolution in 1848 THE AFTERMATH Democrats Swept Out of Europe The Communist Manifesto Karl Marx Friedrich Engels Why did the 1848 Revolutions fail? Not enough support from the working classes. The middle classes were not radical so they held back. Nationalism divided more than united. The Old Guard was left in place and they turned brutally against the revolutionaries. The Bottom Line It looked like the Conservative forces had triumphed. BUT Things had changed forever. Economic/social problems continued to be constant challenges to the ruling order. Conservatives would have to make concessions in order to stay in power. Many of the limited Liberal achievements remained permanent. So, how can conservatives distract the people? Nationalism The belief that people should be primarily loyal to their own country. Militarism Policy of glorifying military power. Germania Like France, Liberals Win Early In Germany Frankfurt Assembly Meets CHAOS! Liberalism Discredited in Germany Little popular support. The union of liberals and democrats didnt last. Rule of force was the only winner! There was a massive exodus of liberal intellectuals. Militarism, hierarchy, and statism were triumphant! Capitalists followed suit. The Three Germanies Enter Bismarck, in Prussia (1862) Bismarck Rejects Liberalism The master of Realpolitik Politics based on reality, not idealism Defies Parliament over taxes Blood & Iron! Bismarck, Keeping It Real It is true that we can hardly escape complications in Germany, although we do not seek them. Germany does not look to Prussia's liberalism, but to her power. The south German States - Bavaria, Wurtenberg, and Baden - would like to indulge in liberalism, and because of that no one will assign Prussia's role to them! Prussia must collect her forces and hold them in reserve for an opportune moment, which has already come and gone several times. Since the Treaty of Vienna, our frontiers have not been favorably designed for a healthy body politic. Not by speeches and majorities will the great questions of the day be decided - that was the mistake of 1848 and but by iron and blood. First, Prussia Attacks Denmark Prussia & Austria vs. Denmark Second, Prussia Attacks Austria Prussia & Italy vs. Austria Prussian Wins Big Prussia wins the light blue area. Next, Bismarck Provokes A War With France Franco-Prussian War: Prussia vs. France Prussia Kicks Frances Butt Area Temporarily Occupied By Prussia The United German Empire Formation Of The German Reich The Triple Alliance

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