Biomaterials, Artificial Cells, and Artificial Organs: An Editorial

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<ul><li><p>BIOMAT., ART. CELLS, ART. O R G . , 15(1), v i i - v i i i (1987) </p><p>EDITORIAL </p><p>1IIWTKBIIIlS, AyTlpICIdL CELLS, AND ARTIFICIAL ORGANS: AN EDITOKIAL </p><p>K o l f r f i r s t d e m o n s t r a t e d t h e c l i n i c a l f e a s i b i l i t y o f a r t i f i c i a l k i d n e y i n IY4 l . I n t h e e a r l y IY5O's S c r i b n e r and q u i n t o n d e v i s e d t h e a r t e r i o - v e n o u s s h u n t and s u c c e s s t u l l y m a i n t a i n e d c h r o n i c r e n a l f a i l u r e p a t i e n t s on a l o n g term b a s i s . The s u c c e s s of t h e a r t i f i c i a l k i d n e y h a s s t i m u l a t e d enormous i n t e r e s t s , e x c i t e m e n t s and e v e n c o n t r o v e r s i e s i n b o t h t h e p u b l i c and t h e m e d i c a l p r o f e s s i o n . T h i s u s h e r e d i n a n era of e x t e n s i v e l a b o r a t o r y and c l i n i c a l r e s e a r c h on a r t i f i c i a l o r g a n s . The m a j o r f i g u r e s who h e l p e d t o u s h e r i n t h i s i m p o r t a n t era i n t h e 1Y5U's i n c l u d e s u c h " f i r s t g e n e r a t i o n " p i o n e e r s as K o l t f , S c r i b n e r , S c h r e i n e r , G i b b o n , S a l i s b u r y , DeBakey, K a n t r a n w i t z , M e r r i l l and many o t h e r s . I n I Y W , t h e f i r s t p u b l i c a t i o n d e v o t e d t o t h i s a r e a was t h e T r a n s a c t i o n s of t h e a n n u a l m e e t i n g s o f t h e Amer ican S o c i e t y of A r t i f i c i a l I n t e r n a l U r g a n s e d i t e d b y </p><p>P r o t e s s o r S c h r e i n e r . B i o m a t e r i a l s , M e d i c a l b e v i c e s , a n d A r t i f i c i a l O r g a n s " s t a r t ed i n I Y 7 3 u n d e r t h e e d i t o r s h i p of P r o f . T.F. Yen was t h e f i r s t E n g l i s h j o u r n a l d e v o t e d t o t h i s area. S i n c e t h e n , a number of o t h e r j o u r n a l s i n t h i s area h a v e a p p e a r e d . Most of t h e newer j o u r n a l s are d e v o t e d t o s p e c i f i c s p e c i a l i z e d areas of t h i s v e r y i n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r y f i e l d . </p><p>Uhy "Biomaterials, Artificial Cells, and Artificial Organs'? A l l o t u s are o r g a n i z e d on t h r e e s t r u c t u r a l l e v e l s : m o l e c u l e s , c e l l s </p><p>and o r g a n s . M o l e c u l e s a re t h e b a s i c b u i l d i n g b l o c k s of c e l l s . C e l l s are t h e u n i t s t r u c t u r e s of a l l o r g a n s . U n t i l r e c e n t l y a r t i f i c i a l r e p l a c e m e n t s were m a i n l y b i o m a t e r i a l s a n d a r t i f i c i a l o r g a n s b a s e d on p o l y m e r c h e m i s t r y and e n g i n e e r i n g p r i n c i p l e s . K e c e n t r a p i d p r o g r e s s i n b i o t e c h n o l o g y h a v e l e d t o p i o n e e r i n g d e v e l o p m e n t s i n t h e m o l e c u l a r and a r t i t i c i a l c e l l l e v e l s . The a d d i t i o n of b i o t e c h n o l o g y t o t h e c l a s s i c a l a p p r o a c h of p o l y m e r c h e m i s t r y a n d e n g i n e e r i n g i s b e g i n n i n g t o r e v o l u t i o n i z e a r t i f i c i a l r e p l a c e m e n t s on a l l t h e s e s t r u c t u r a l l e v e l s . </p><p>a r t i f i c i a l k i d n e y s , a r t i f i c i a l h e a r t s , o x y g e n a t o r s , v a s c u l a r p r o s t h e s i s , and o t h e r a r t i t i c i a l r e p l a c e m e n t s . Wi th t h e a d v a n c e of b i o t e c h n o l o g y we a r e w i t n e s s i n g a n i n c r e a s i n g number o t p i o n e e r i n g a p p r o a c h e s . On a m o l e c u l a r l e v e l w e see t h e u s e o t b i o t e c h n o l o g i c a l l y d e r i v e d s y n t h e t i c m o l e c u l e s . A n o t h e r i m p o r t a n t area i s i n i m m o b i l i z e d b i o r e a c t a n t s . T h i s i n c l u d e s t h e i m m o b i l i z a t i o n of enzymes , immunogens, d r u g s , r e c e p t o r s , a n d o t h e r b i o l o g i c a l l y a c t i v e m o l e c u l e s . Un t h e c e l l u l a r l e v e l , i n t e r e s t s i n a r t i f i c i a l c e l l s h a v e p r o g r e s s e d r a p i d l y . T h e s e h a v e been u s e d f o r enzyme r e p l a c e m e n t , enzyme t h e r a p y , i m m u n o s o r p t i o n , d e t o x i f i c a t i o n , h e m o p e r f u s i o n , m e t a b o l i t e c o n v e r s i o n s a n d d r u g d e l i v e r y s y s t e m s . A r t i f i c i a l b l o o d c e l I s </p><p>The e n g i n e e r i n g and p o l y m e r c h e m i s t r y a p p r o a c h e s h a v e a l r e a d y g i v e n u s </p><p>v i i </p><p>Art</p><p>if C</p><p>ells</p><p> Blo</p><p>od S</p><p>ubst</p><p>it Im</p><p>mob</p><p>il B</p><p>iote</p><p>chno</p><p>l Dow</p><p>nloa</p><p>ded </p><p>from</p><p> info</p><p>rmah</p><p>ealth</p><p>care</p><p>.com</p><p> by </p><p>Uni</p><p>vers</p><p>ity o</p><p>f A</p><p>uckl</p><p>and </p><p>on 1</p><p>2/06</p><p>/14</p><p>For </p><p>pers</p><p>onal</p><p> use</p><p> onl</p><p>y.</p></li><li><p>EDITORIAL v i i i </p><p>from fluOKOCaKbOn and hemoglobin a r e b e i n g used as r e d b lood c e l l s u b s t i t u t e s f o r t r a n s f u s i o n . A r t i f i c i a l c e l l s c o n t a i n i n g c e l l c u l t u r e s (e.g. hybridoma, e n d o c r i n e c e l Is and l i v e r c e l l s ) is a n o t h e r approach. </p><p>F u t u r e p i o n e e r i n g approaches i n a r t i f i c i a l r e p l a c e m e n t s w i l l depend i n c r e a s i n g l y on i n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r y approaches u s i n g b i o t e c h n o l o g y , e n g i n e e r i n g , and polymer chemis t ry . Fu r the rmore , i t would r e q u i r e t h e i n t e g r a t i o n of r e s e a r c h and deve lopmen t i n b i o m a t e r i a l s , a r t i f i c i a l c e l l s and a r t i f i c i a l organs. B i o m a t e r i a l s , A r t i f i c i a l C e l Is, and A r t i f i c i a l Organs is t h e f i r s t j o u r n a l which w i l l f u l f i l l t h i s modern and f u t u r i s t i c r equ i r emen t . I t w i l l a l l o w r e s e a r c h e r s and u s e r s of a r t i f i c i a l r e p l a c e m e n t s t o be k e p t i n t h e f o r e f r o n t of t h i s h i g h l y i n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r y area. Fur the rmore , r e s u l t s p u b l i s h e d i n t h i s t y p e of i n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r y j o u r n a l can be more r a p i d l y and e f f e c t i v e l y made u s e of by o t h e r Workers i n r e l a t e d a r e a s . </p><p>P a p e r s submitted for publicattons </p><p>a r e a v a i l a b l e i n t h e I n s t r u c t i o n t o a u t h o r s s e c t i o n o f t h i s j o u r n a l . The a i m is f o r r a p i d p u b l i c a t i o n of a c c e p t e d manusc r ip t s . </p><p>Submi t t ed p a p e r s w i l l be a s s e s s e d by p e e r review. F u r t h e r d e t a i l s </p><p>sylposiru volums In a d d i t i o n t o s u b m i t t e d p a p e r s , s e l e c t e d p a p e r s f rom symposia w i t h </p><p>major i n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r y i n t e r e s t s w i l l be p u b l i s h e d as symposium volumes. The r a p i d p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s j o u r n a l w i l l a l l o w i m p o r t a n t i n f o r m a t i o n of symposia t o be q u i c k l y des s imina ted . </p><p>D a t a b a s e I n o r d e r t o a l l o w r e s e a r c h e r s and u s e r s i n d i f f e r e n t d i s c i p l i n e s t o </p><p>have r a p i d a c c e s s t o t h e m a t e r i a l s i n t h i s j o u r n a l , a r t i c l e s are indexed or a b s t r a c t e d i n t h e f o l l o w i n g d a t a b a s e : ASCA, E x c e r p t a Medica, I n d e x Medicus, C u r r e n t C o n t e n t s I L i f e S c i e n c e s , S c i e n c e C i t a t i o n Index , lSL/BlOMtib, B ioSc iences I n f o r m a t i o n S e r v i c e of b i o l o g i c a l A b s t r a c t s (BLOSIS), Chemical A b s t r a c t s , E n g i n e e r i n g Index , Computer and C o n t r o l A b s t r a c t s , C u r r e n t P a p e r s i n Computer and C o n t r o l , C u r r e n t P a p e r s i n E l e c t r i c a l and E l e c t r o n i c Eng inee r ing , I n d e x t o D e n t a l L i t e r a t u r e , D e n t a l A b s t r a c t s , E l e c t r i c a l and E l e c t r o n i c s A b s t r a c t s , Energy Data Base, Oral Kesea rch A b s t r a c t s , A b s t r a c t s J o u r n a l of t h e I n s t i t u t e of S c i e n t i f i c I n f o r m a t i o n of t h e USSK Academy of S c i e n c e , PASCAL, and P h y s i k a l i s c h e B e K i C h t e . </p><p>Editorial Board The i n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r y n a t u r e of t h i s j o u r n a l i s r e f l e c t e d by t h e </p><p>members of t h e e d i t o r i a l board. The members r e p r e s e n t well-known r e s e a r c h e r s in t h e d i t f e r e n t a r e a s of b i o m a t e r i a l , a r t i f i c i a l c e l l s and a r t i f i c i a l organs. They h a v e an i m p o r t a n t r o l e i n c o n t r i b u t i n g , encourag ing and s e l e c t i n g m a t e r i a l s f o r t h i s j o u r n a l . </p><p>T.M.S. Chang </p><p>Art</p><p>if C</p><p>ells</p><p> Blo</p><p>od S</p><p>ubst</p><p>it Im</p><p>mob</p><p>il B</p><p>iote</p><p>chno</p><p>l Dow</p><p>nloa</p><p>ded </p><p>from</p><p> info</p><p>rmah</p><p>ealth</p><p>care</p><p>.com</p><p> by </p><p>Uni</p><p>vers</p><p>ity o</p><p>f A</p><p>uckl</p><p>and </p><p>on 1</p><p>2/06</p><p>/14</p><p>For </p><p>pers</p><p>onal</p><p> use</p><p> onl</p><p>y.</p></li></ul>

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